The purpose of this survey is to review the present situation of the referee systems of 55 English-language scientific journals in Japan, and to evaluate their quality and international readership of those journals. Based on this survey, the author discusses some editorial efforts which may promote the greater use worldwide.
The development of American medical education before the Civil War was studied. One hundred and forty-three first professors in American medical schools before the Civil War were selected, and records of their academic origins, places of birth, and study abroad were collected from various biographical sources. Based on the prosopographical analysis of personal data of first professors, the historical changes and the characteristics in American medical education are discussed.
The purpose of this paper is to study the referee systems of foreign scientific journals in the field of life sciences preferred by Japanese researchers. This survey has been conducted in response to the need of Japanese authors for current information about the refereeing systems of foreign life science journals. Based on questionnaire data obtained from 29 journal editors, this paper describes the refereeing systems. This survey showed that most Japanese researchers in the field of life sciences tried to submit their papers to prestigious foreign journals with a higher rejection rate. There was a high correlation between the rejection rate and the impact factor in the field of biochemistry and molecular biology.
Authors:K. Yamazaki, S. Tonouchi, and T. Hashimoto
Since October 1983, the Niigata Prefectural Government has been carrying out the continuous measurements of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the environment around the Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power station by environmental radiation monitoring telemetry system. Continuous measurements of gamma-ray spectra have been established since April 1996. As a result, the contribution of various radionuclides has been gradually clarified in the variations of the gamma-ray dose rate. In this paper, the energy spectrum of the incident gamma-ray to NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was obtained by the unfolding method using a response matrix, and the variations of the energy spectrum observed in the precipitation and snow were investigated. The increase in the dose rate in precipitation originated from the increase in the flux density of gamma-ray from 214Bi and 214Pb, daughter nuclide of 222Rn, which fell down with the precipitation. On the other hand, the reduction in the dose rate in the snowy period was confirmed due to the shielding effect of a part of gamma-rays from the natural radioactive nuclides by the snow layer, in coincidence with the decrease of the flux density in 40K and 208Tl.
Prompt gamma-ray analysis was applied to determine hydrogen in geological samples. In order to obtain accurate values, blank
values were estimated and subtracted. Samples were dried to constant weight in an oven. Helium gas was introduced into the
sample box to purge the air containing moisture during the measurement. Hydrogen contents in some geochemical standard samples
were determined and highly reproducible values were obtained.
Authors:K. Yamazaki, S. Tonouchi, and T. Hashimoto
Environmental cumulative doses measured by a radiophotoluminescence glass dosimeter (RPLD) and a thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) were compared at the same monitoring points during two years. In winter season, when the mean temperature of the monitoring points dropped below 4 °C, the RPLD-sensitivity offered approximately 5% lower values in comparison with those in other seasons. From the artificial irradiation experiments under different room temperatures, the sensitivity of RPLD was found to decrease by 3-4% below 6.3 °C, while the difference was negligible above 8 °C. Based on the present results, much attention should be paid to the sensitivity changes of RPLD, whenever used in cold areas.
Authors:S. Tonouchi, H. Habuki, K. Katoh, K. Yamazaki, and T. Hashimoto
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been applied to the measurement of plutonium isotopes in soils. In the ICP-MS, a calibration curve method was conveniently utilized even in high viscosity solution using a Babington nebulizer. Plutonium concentrations in soil around the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station were found to be in the range of 0.054 to 1.0 Bq/kg with an average of 0.27 Bq/kg. The ratios of 239Pu/240Pu were also obtained with the ICP-MS to investigate the origin of Pu-isotopes. On the basis of this result, the origin of the Pu-isotopes was attributed to be fallout from the past atmospheric nuclear tests.
Authors:K. Sakamoto, K. Itoh, T. Takashima, S. Yokoyama, and K. Yamazaki
Uranium concentrations in three types of inclusions of the Allende (C III), a bulk sample of the Plainview (H5), and a bulk
and 5 to 15 density separates of the Huckitta pallasite were determined and discussed by comparing the results from homogenized
fission track and/or239Np analyses with the133Xe results. Stepwise heating experiment revealed that the133Xe release from the Plainview is bimordal and incomplete by a simple heating at 1600 °C, and that the133Xe releases in the Huckitta bulk and metallic samples are multitudinous but can be extracted rather completely at 1600–1700
°C. In the Huckitta, uranium-rich phase (∼100 ppb) was in the lightest density fraction of d=2.9–3.3, but the bulk uranium
was found to be mostly from the heavy metal-rich fraction of d>4.2.
Authors:H. Sakai, T. Yamazaki, N. Machida, T. Shigematsu, and S. Nakashima
Mössbauer spectra of (Fe0.5Zn0.5)PS3, which is isomorphous with FePS3, were measured at 300 and 80 K, and were compared with those of FePS3. We succeeded in preparing (Fe0.5Zn0.5)PS3 intercalated with pyridine. In the XRD pattern of the intercalate the diffraction peaks corresponding to (Fe0.5Zn0.5)PS3 were completely missing, suggesting that the intercalation was completely performed with pyridine. The Mössbauer spectra
were changed significantly by the intercalation suggesting the charge transfer from guest molecules to the host matrix. The
replacement of iron by zinc has no influence on the electronic state of the iron atom, except for the magnetic interaction.
Authors:S. Miyamoto, M. Sutoh, A. Shiomoto, S. Yamazaki, K. Nishimura, C. Yonezawa, H. Matsue, and M. Hoshi
Boron concentration of plasma, feces, urine and body tissues from sheep fed with borated water (100 mg B/l) and tap water were determined by neutron-induced prompt gamma-ray analysis to elucidate boron metabolism. The B level in plasma and urine increased rapidly and the B content of feces increased greatly. The B concentrations in body tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, thyroid and muscle) of B dosed sheep were ten times higher than those of tap water administered sheep.