Taiwan monazite is a unique mineral obtained from the heavy sand found in the river floor of Tzuo-suei river and En-suei river. Both rivers are flowing parallel with separated narrow area into the sea at southwestern coast of Taiwan. The characteristic of monazite is that it contains considerable rare earth elements (REEs). REEs are considered very useful elements in the local industries and scientific researches such as ceramic, semiconductors, and glass optics. In this study, chemical neutron activation analysis (CNAA) was used to determine the contents of REEs in Taiwan monazite. A few milligram of monazite was digested in the microwave oven for 25 minutes with mixed acid (conc. HNO3 and HClO4). REEs were preconcentrated by hydrated magnesium oxide and CNAA was performed.
Substoichiometric extraction in conjunction with a double tracer technique is employed to simultaneous determination of extraction constants of simple metal pyrrolidinedithiocarbamates and chloride-mixed metal pyrrolidinedithiocarbamates. The metals involved include Hg(II), Bi(III), In(III), As(III), Cd(II) and Fe(II). The extraction constants for Bi(III) and Cd(II) obtained are compared with the values available in the literature. The extraction constants for all the other metals are reported for the first time.
Nondestructive neutron activation analysis employing reactor neutrons and a Ge(Li) gamma-spectrometer has been used to determine
the trace element level of air particulates in various areas of Hong Kong. Comparison of the average concentrations of the
trace elements of air particulates was made among industrial, heavy-traffic and residential areas. It was found that industrial
areas have higher concentrations of Co, Cr, Hg, Mn and Zn, while heavy-traffic areas have very high concentrations of Br.
Comparison of the pollution level of Hong Kong with other cities was also made. The average concentrations of Co, Cr, Hg,
Zn and Br of air particulates in Hong Kong were found to have higher values than those of other cities. Finally, daily variation
of the trace element level in a special area (Hung Hom) had been studied, but no significant variation was found.
A preconcentration method of 13 rare earth elements (REES) was studied for neutron activation ananlysis (NAA). Hydrated magnesium oxide was used as the preconcentration agent to absorb the REES ions from aqueous solution onto the solid magnesium oxide, which was separated and analyzed. It was observed that the Langmuir equation for isothermal adsorption was well obeyed by the REES under the condition studied. The efficiency of the preconcentration process using hydrated magnesium oxide was critically examined for each of REE and for mixture of REES by preparing a known volume of solution containing known amount of trace REES. NAA was used to analyze REES recovered by the preconcentration process. It was found that the REES recoveries were satisfactory and the preconcentration process is reliable. There are several resort resort areas in Taiwan where local people are enjoying its hot spring water. It is generally believed that the hot spring water spa would bring about some sorts of therapeutic functions. The preconcentration method developed above, was applied to analyze the trace amounts of REES in hot spring wate in Taiwan.
It was found that trace amount of various ions could be effectively adsorbed onto hydrous magnesium oxide from aqueous solution. Attempts were made to investigate the feasibility of using hydrous magnesium oxide as preconcentration agent for neutron activation analysis (NAA). The procedure was successfully applied for the measurements of trace amounts of elements in the surface water of a number of large rivers which play very important roles in the lives of local people. Some of them are polluted rather badly. In order to improve the living standards it is rather important to establish reliable analytical methods so that more effective surveillance may be enforced on pollution control problems. NAA is generally accepted as one of the most suitable methods for simultaneous and multielemental determination of trace amounts of elements. In this work polluted surface waters were investigated by NAA using Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor (THOR).
The rates at which six small aminopolycarboxylate chelates of trivalent111In and three protein-bound chelates of111In deliver indium to the serum protein transferrin have been studied in sterile human serum at pH 7.3, 37°C. Sterically hindered
chelates containing a substituent on an ethylene carbon of EDTA decompose with rates in the range 0.03 to 0.11% per day—one
to two orders of magnitude slower than other chelates. Only small differences are observed between rates of decomposition
for low-molecular-weight chelates and for protein-bound chelates having analogous structures.
The influence of elevated temperatures on the formation of 1:1 chloro complexes for Eu3+ and Am3+ are reported. Using a solvent extraction technique, stability constants for the equilibrium M(aq)3++Cl(aq)–
MCl(aq)2+ have been measured in the temperature range of 25–75 °C. Modest increases in
1 are observed, and small positive enthalpies for these reactions are reported. These data are discussed in the context of previous reports for the trivalent lanthanide and actinide chloro systems.
The aim of this paper is to investigate homomorphisms which reserve square-free languages or primitive languages. A characterization
of square-free-preserving homomorphisms is presented. We show that every square-free-preserving homomorphism is primitive-preserving.
Strongly cube-free-preserving homomorphisms are also studied.
We have recently developed a new method of measuring the initial51Cr(III) produced from nuclear recoil of K2CrO4. In our method, K2CrO4 was mixed with MgO in the presence of a small amount of water, and the mixture was irradiated in a nuclear reactor. After irradiation, the mixture was dissolved in water, and MgO precipitate was separated from the solution. The yield of recoil51Cr(III) could be calculated from the51Cr activity in the precipitate measured. On the other hand, the yield of retention of51Cr as chromate could be calcualted from the activity found in the supernatant. The51Cr(III) yield thus obtained is almost a factor of 2 higher than observed in pure K2CrO4 without mixing with MgO, irradiated under the same condition. Another important observation is that the51Cr(III) yield is independent of irradiation time in the presence of MgO. Without MgO, the observed51Cr(III) yield decreases with increasing irradiation time, suggesting possible oxidation of Cr(III) to chromate during irradiation. This variation is not observed in the system of K2CrO4 containing MgO, indicating that the initial Cr(III) is adsorbed immediately after nuclear recoil by MgO and is protected from oxidation by gamma radiation.
Authors:S. Loyland, M. Yeh, C. Phelps, and S. Clark
We have studied the partitioning of stable elements and uranium to two sediments using sequential extractions (SE). These matrices were then subjected to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to attempt to remove the uranium. SEs were repeated on the material remaining after SFE to determine any changes in partitioning. We have confirmed that under suitable chemical conditions, ligand-assisted SFE can be used to extract many metal ions from such matrices. Under the conditions we used, the "easily leachable" metals were extracted, but the refractory metals were not. In addition, SFE appears to redistibute the remaining metal cations among the remaining geochemical after SFE treatment. Our results are presented and discussed in the context of developing decontamination strategies for contaminated soils and sediments.