A radiochemical neutron activation analysis procedure has been applied to investigate 40 major, minor, and trace impurities
in nickel-based alloy. The extensive use of these alloys in the electronic industry, telecommunications, manufacturing of
aircraft engine turbine blades and chemical equipments desires for their precise characterization. The concentration of nickel
in the nickel-based alloy was found to be 56.8%, whereas Fe, Cr, Ca, Mg, Ce, Mn, Na and V were the major components of the
alloy, which constituted to more than 26%. The rest of the elements was present in minor or trace levels. Most of the rare
earth elements except Ce were also present in trace amounts. Neutron activation analysis technique was preferably used because
of its good sensitivity and multielement determination capabilities for the characterization of high purity materials. The
comparison of RNAA and INAA indicated improvement in the detection limits utilizing radiochemical separation procedures developed
in the present work.
Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used to evaluate potentially toxic trace element concentrations in twenty-three individual food items commonly consumed in a high altitude region (Kashmir) as a continuation of our previous study. Elemental intake levels of As, Br, Hg, Sb, and Se per person per day in meat, poultry, food grains, vegetables, fruits and milk have been calculated to assess the safety of dietary intake of these items. The dietary intake values have also been compared to the RDA levels. The data will provide the base-line levels of toxic elements in food items of this region. It will also help the dieticians to formulate safe and adequate diets for the residents of this region.
is considered an important medicinal plant by the local population of Balochistan, Pakistan. The species is facing a grave threat by a parasitic and epiphytic angiosperm, dwarf mistletoe,
(DC.) M. Bieb. (Viscaceae). The methanolic extract of
was studied for its chemical composition and biologically active compounds for the first time. The extract was assayed for antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic, cytotoxic and insecticidal activities. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extract were determined against ten bacterial and ten fungal strains by agar well diffusion and disc diffusion assay. The extract was highly effective against three bacteria
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis
and a fungus
. The phytotoxic effects showed that it was extremely toxic for
. It showed high cytoxicity for brine shrimps at all concentrations and was found to be significantly cytotoxic against
when checked by flow cytometer. However, the extract was not effective against the pests tested.
Authors:S. Husaini, J. Zaidi, Matiullah, and M. Akram
Due to the significance of industrial waste water pollution, which creates severe health hazards in humans, this study concentrates
over the reduction and determination of the amounts of toxic metals/pollution parameters in the effluents leached from different
processes of the textile industry. The concentrations of metal ions were measured by using neutron activation analysis (NAA)
technique. The values of toxic metals such as As (49.1 ± 1.8 mg/L), Cu (42.7 ± 1.5 mg/L), Ni (41.1 ± 3.3 mg/L), Mn (51.1 ± 0.7 mg/L),
Sb (1.89 ± 0.04 mg/L), Se (0.41 ± 0.01 mg/L), Co (7.5 ± 0.3 mg/L), Cr (8.5 ± 0.5 mg/L) and Cd (1.21 ± 0.08 mg/L) were found
very high in crude textile’s effluents as compared to their standard recommended limits. The immense variation observed among
the injurious pollutants of the effluents i.e. pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, turbidity, biological oxygen demands,
chemical oxygen demands, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, total solids etc. The toxic metals and injurious
pollutants in the unprocessed effluents have been reduced in the post filtration effluents up to 98% and 96% respectively
with the help of an ultra-filtration membrane therapy unit.
Authors:S. Husaini, J. Zaidi, Matiullah, and M. Akram
The industrial pollution is exponentially growing in the developing countries due to the discharge of untreated effluents
from the industries in the open atmosphere. This may cause severe health hazards in the general public. To reduce this effect,
it is essential to remove the toxic and heavy metals from the effluents before their disposal into the biosphere. In this
context, samples of the effluents were collected from the textile/yarn, ceramics and pulp/paper industries and the concentrations
of the toxic metal ions were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The observed concentration values
of the As, Cr and Fe ions, in the unprocessed industrial effluents, were 4.91 ± 0.8, 9.67 ± 0.7 and 9.71 ± 0.8 mg/L, respectively
which was well above the standard recommended limits (i.e. 1.0, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively). In order to remove the toxic metal ions from the effluents, the samples were treated with pea nut husk fence.
After this treatment, 91.5% arsenic, 81.9% chromium and 66.5% iron metal ions were successfully removed from the effluents.
Then the treated effluents contained concerned toxic metal ions concentrations within the permissible limits as recommended
by the national environmental quality standards (NEQS).
Authors:S. Husaini, J. Zaidi, Matiullah, and M. Arif
Due to the inadequate water sources, usually sewerage water and industrial effluents are being use for irrigation of the agricultural
land around the industrial areas in Pakistan wherein crops and vegetables are cultivated. As untreated effluents contain heavy
elements, toxic metals and organic pollutants that may find its way through food chain to general public and may cause health
hazards. It is, therefore, mandatory to assess the toxic metals in such crops and vegetables. In this regard, samples of corn,
millet, cabbage, spinach and potato were collected within the vicinity of industrial areas of the Faisalabad and Gujranwala
regions. The food samples were analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The highest concentration values
of Arsenic (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g) and Cobalt (0.85 ± 0.01 μg/g) were found in cabbage whereas Manganese (91.6 ± 0.2 μg/g), Antimony
(0.15 ± 0.03 μg/g) and Selenium (1.1 ± 0.1 μg/g) were observed in spinach and Chromium (9.63 ± 1.3 μg/g) was found in millet
crop. The observed concentrations of all the toxic and heavy metals in crops and vegetables are higher than those reported
in the literature.
Authors:S. Husaini, J. Zaidi, Matiullah, and M. Arif
Pakistan is an agricultural country, yet it is facing a serious threat due to the shortage of water resources and degradation
of the agricultural land by the pollution of industrial effluents. A limited number of the current industries are equipped
with proper operating treatment plants. Generally, the untreated effluents are disposed off to the open environment which
is used for irrigation purposes. Therefore, vegetables and crops grown around the industrial areas is a major potential source
of metal poisoning which pose a serious risk to the general public. Hence, study of the toxicity level in vegetables and crops
is highly desirable. In this regard, systematic studies have been carried out to determine concentration levels of toxic elements
in the samples of vegetables, crops, effluents and soil collected from the industrial areas of the Faisalabad. After processing,
these samples were analyzed using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometric techniques. The highest
concentrations of toxic metals were observed for As (2.73 ± 0.34) in cabbage, Cd (1.5 ± 0.1), Ni (5.1 ± 0.9) and Pb (4.3 ± 0.2)
in corn, Co (0.65 ± 0.02), and Sb (0.09 ± 0.01) in carrot, Cr (9.63 ± 1.3), Mn (46.5 ± 4.2) and Se (1.03 ± 0.1) in millet,
Cu (11.3 ± 1.1) in tomato vegetables and crop samples. Although, the observed toxicity levels in vegetables and crop samples
were higher than those grown in non-industrial areas, yet these toxicity levels are within the safe recommended limits.
A proficiency test (PT) exercise was offered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for major, minor and trace elements
in Chinese ceramic reference material (IAEA-CU-2006-06). Neutron activation analysis (NAA) laboratory at PINSTECH, Pakistan
participated in the exercise and submitted the results for 28 elements. The aim of participation was to develop a suitable
methodology for accurate measurement of as many elements as possible in ceramic material using a low power reactor (PARR-2)
as this would help future investigation in a project on the authenticity of art objects, for provenance, conservation and
management of ancient cultural heritage of the country. After receiving the final report of the PT exercise, a critical review
of our data and final scoring of each element is made to check the suitability of our methodology and reliability of the acquired
data. Most of the reported results passed different statistical evaluation criterion such as relative bias, z-score and u-scores and ratio of our results and IAEA target values. One element (Yb) falls in the unacceptable range of relative bias
and z-scores. Hf and Tb showed slightly high z-scores within the questionable range. Ho, Mo and Sn were determined during this study but their results were not submitted
to the IAEA. The confidence of accuracy observed for most of the elements in ceramic material has made it mandatory to report
their results as information values.
Four commercial Saudi Arabian crude oils were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA).
These crude oils, Arab Berri (AB), Arab Light (AL), Arab Medium (AM) and Arab Heavy (AH), were also subjected to the traditionally
employed true boiling point (TBP) distillation and simulated distillation (SIMDIST). The TG/DTA data show that the hydrocarbons
present in these crude oils fall into four groups: the volatiles, the low molecular weight, the medium molecular weight and
the high molecular weight compounds. These four types of hydrocarbons were observed to display certain trends, such that the
volatile and low molecular weight hydrocarbons increased, while the medium and high molecular weight hydrocarbons decreased
with the lightness of the crude. The volatile contents of AB, AL, AM and AH crude oils up to 280�C were 50.1, 42.2, 42.3 and
38.5 mass percent, respectively. This confirms that AB is the lightest of these crude oils with maximum volatile content.
The mass percentage loss from the TG results is in good agreement with the percentage distilled from TBP (ASTM D 2892) and
SIMDIST. During evaporation, the TG mass loss follows a similar trend to those of the TBP and SIMDIST results and thus behaves
like distillation. During the oxidative degradation, the TG curve shows a higher mass loss as compared to the distillation
data. The higher deviation of the TG mass loss and percentage distilled at the higher-temperature end of the curve may be
attributed to the higher content of asphaltenes and carbonaceous material present in AH as compared to the AB crude oil. At
around 200�C, the TG mass loss curve intersects the TBP and SIMDIST curves and shows a derivation from distillation behaviour.
This intersection temperature of the TG and distillation curves is observed to decrease with the heaviness of the crude and
can be an indication of the onset of thermal degradation of hydrocarbons present in the crude oil. On the whole, the TG data
closely resemble the distillation results.
Authors:S. Waheed, N. Siddique, A. Rahman, J. Zaidi, and S. Ahmad
instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been employed to determine 19 essential and other trace elements of fourteen
fruits harvested in Pakistan. Most of the fruits investigated contain substantial Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg, K and Na concentration levels.
Fruits were found to be an adequate source of Co and Fe. Winter season provides a variety of fruits with highest adequacy
for most of the essential elements while the fruits ingested in the summer season provide the minimum nutrient adequacy for
these elements with the exception of Cl.