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Abstract  

The thermal behavior of Nafion-117 membranes was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). TG measurements revealed that the mechanism of thermal degradation of a Nafion membrane in the acid form is different from that of Nafion in the sodium form. The DSC curves for the first heating, for both acid and salt forms, display two endothermic peaks, near 120 and 230°C. The high-temperature peak was assigned to the crystalline domains melting in Nafion, and the low-temperature peak was attributed to a transition into ionic clusters, since this transition exhibits significant changes depending on the nature of the counterion and the degree of hydration.

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Abstract

The organic fraction of urban solid residues disposed of in sanitary landfills during the decomposition yields biogas and leachate, which are sources of pollution. Leachate is a resultant liquid from the decomposition of substances contained in solid residues and it contains in its composition organic and inorganic substances. Literature shows an increase in the use of thermoanalytical techniques to study the samples with environmental interest, this way thermogravimetry is used in this research. Thermogravimetric studies (TG curves) carried out on leachate and residues shows similarities in the thermal behavior, although presenting complex composition. Residue samples were collected from landfills, composting plants, sewage treatment stations, leachate, which after treatment, were submitted for thermal analysis. Kinetic parameters were determined using the Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method. In this case they show little divergence between the kinetic parameter that can be attributed to different decomposition reaction and presence of organic compounds in different phases of the decomposition with structures modified during degradation process and also due to experimental conditions of analysis.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Marisa S. Crespi, Quézia V. Martins, Sonia de Almeida, Hernane S. Barud, Marcelo Kobelnik, and Clóvis A. Ribeiro

Abstract

The increase in sugarcane production and processing in order to obtain important products such as sugar and ethanol has the negative aspect of also increasing industrial residues. The most important residues originated during processing are bagasse, hydrolyzed bagasse, filter cake, vinasse, and ash. Thermal analysis revealed that these residues have peculiar properties, such as the presence of lignocellulosic material, except in the ash. The amount of organic matter decreases during the treatment process, due to the addition of chemical products to the residues, which are responsible for some alteration in their thermal properties. Colorimetric analysis showed considerable K and P concentrations in the vinasse and filter-cake residues. EDX and infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of Si in the residues. A higher percent of Si in ash sample was also observed, as a product of the thermal decomposition, by TG, FTIR, and X-ray diffractometry.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: M. Freitas, M. Reis, A. Marques, S. Almeida, M. Farinha, O. de Oliveira, M. Ventura, A. Pacheco, and L. Barros

Abstract  

Examples of the application of k 0 standardized instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0 -INAA) to aerosols and biological monitors in the last 10 years at Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear (ITN) are given. As an analytical technique, INAA, in association with the k 0 method was applied to these materials in four different projects, aiming at monitoring concentrations of heavy metals and others elements in the atmosphere in the Portuguese territory. In these studies we analysed the lichen Parmelia sulcata Taylor and olive tree bark as monitors as well as aerosol samples. For each project some representative results are presented, followed by a discussion of the application of this technique to environmental studies.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: A. V. G. Netto, A. M. Santana, A. E. Mauro, Regina C. G. Frem, E. T. de Almeida, M. S. Crespi, and H. E. Zorel Jr.
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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Sahra C. Lemos, Silmar J. S. Franchi, Adelino V. G. Netto, Antonio E. Mauro, Oswaldo Treu-Filho, Regina C. G. Frem, Eduardo Tonon de Almeida, and Cláudia Torres

Abstract

This work describes the synthesis, characterization, and the thermal behavior investigation of four palladium(II) complexes with general formulae [PdX2(mba)2], in which mba = N-methylbenzylamine and X = OAc (1), Cl (2), Br (3) or I (4). The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared vibrational spectroscopy, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. The stoichiometry of the complexes was established by means of elemental analysis and thermogravimetry (TG). TG/DTA curves showed that the thermodecomposition of the four complexes occurred in 3–4 steps, leading to metallic palladium as final residue. The palladium content found in all curves was in agreement with the mass percentages calculated for the complexes. The following thermal stability sequence was found: 3 > 2 > 4 > 1. The geometry optimization of 1, 2, 3, and 4, calculated using the DFT/B3LYP method, yielded a slightly distorted square planar environment around the Pd(II) ion made by two anionic groups and two nitrogen atoms from the mba ligand (N1 and N2), in a trans-relationship.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Ellen Denise P. Almeida, Adjane A. Costa, Mairim R. Serafini, Fábia C. Rossetti, Juliana M. Marchetti, Victor Hugo V. Sarmento, Rogéria de S. Nunes, Mário Ernesto G. Valerio, Adriano A.S. Araújo, and Ana Amélia M. Lira

Abstract

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) without drug and SLN loaded with chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (AlClPc) were prepared by solvent diffusion method in aqueous system and characterized by thermal analyses and X-ray diffraction (XRD) in this study. Determination of particle size, zeta potential (ZP), and encapsulation efficiency were also evaluated. SLN containing AlClPc of nanometer size with high encapsulation efficiency and ZP were obtained. The results indicated that the size of SLN loaded with AlClPc is larger than that of the inert particle, but ZP is not changed significantly with incorporation of the drug. In differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves, it was observed that the melting point of stearic acid (SA) isolated and in SLN occurred at 55 and 64 °C, respectively, suggesting the presence of different polymorphs. DSC also shows that the crystallinity state of SLN was much less than that of SA isolated. The incorporation of drug in SLN may have been favored by this lower crystallinity degree of the samples. XRD techniques corroborated with the thermal analytic techniques, suggesting the polymorphic modifications of stearic acid.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: L. M. Jesus, P. R. C. Abreu, Marcela C. Almeida, Lavínia C. Brito, Sheila F. Soares, D. E. De Souza, Luciana C. Bernardo, A. S. Fonseca, and M. Bernardo-Filho

Since ancient times propolis has been employed for many human purposes because to their favourable properties. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) have been used in nuclear medicine procedures. Some authors have reported that synthetic or natural drugs can interfere with the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the action of a propolis extract on the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc. Samples of whole blood of male Wistar rats were incubated in sequence with an aqueous propolis extract at different concentrations, stannous chloride and 99mTc, as sodium pertechnetate. Blood samples were centrifuged to separate plasma and blood cells, soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells were also separated after precipitation in trichloroacetic acid solution and centrifugation. The radioactivity was counted and the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) for each fraction was calculated. The data obtained showed that the aqueous propolis extract used decreased significantly the %ATI in plasma proteins at higher concentration studied. Results suggest that at high concentration the constituents of this extract could alter the labeling of plasma proteins competing with same binding sites of the 99mTc on the plasma proteins or acting as antioxidant compounds.

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