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Rapid and accurate diagnosis of influenza is important for patient management and infection control. We determined the performance of the cobas® Influenza A/B assay, a rapid automated nucleic acid assay performed on the cobas® Liat System for qualitative detection of influenza A and influenza B from nasopharyngeal (NP) swab specimens. Retrospective frozen and prospectively collected NP swabs from patients with signs and symptoms of influenza collected in universal transport medium (UTM) were tested at multiple sites including CLIA-waived sites using the cobas® Influenza A/B assay. Results were compared to the Prodesse ProFlu+ assay and to viral culture. Compared to the Prodesse ProFlu+ Assay, sensitivities of the cobas® Influenza A/B assay for influenza A and B were 97.7 and 98.6%, respectively; specificity was 99.2 and 99.4%. Compared to viral culture, the cobas® Influenza A/B assay showed sensitivities of 97.5 and 96.9% for influenza virus A and B, respectively; specificities were 97.9% for both viruses. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/sequencing showed that the majority of viral culture negative but cobas® Influenza A/B positive results were true positive results, indicating that the cobas® Influenza A/B assay has higher sensitivity compared to viral culture.

In conclusion, the excellent accuracy, rapid time to result, and remarkable ease of use make the cobas® Influenza A/B nucleic acid assay for use on the cobas® Liat System a highly suitable point-of-care solution for the management of patients with suspected influenza A and B infection.

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Abstract  

In this paper, the Laplace inversion technique, i.e., CONTIN program, has been used to analyze the positron lifetime spectra to obtain continuous annihilation rate distribution (ARD). Two kinds of materials were studied by measuring the positron ARD. In dealuminated Y-type zeolite, five peaks were observed, and the longest component is related to o-Ps lifetime in the secondary pores. In GaAs and in InP semiconductors, the native defects were successfully identified by the difference in positron ARD shape. More evidently, when InP sample was irradiated with high energy heavy ions, the positron ARD showed difference with different irradiation dose. These results indicate that the CONTIN analysis is a good complement to the PATFIT program.

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CuO nanocrystals in thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate

Stabilization, structural characterization and catalytic activities

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: L.-J. Chen, G.-S. Li, and L.-P. Li

Abstract  

CuO nanocrystals of different surface areas were prepared. All samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transition electron microscope, thermogravimetry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller technique, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. CuO nanocrystals showed a stable monoclinic structure. With increasing surface areas, the surface hydration became significant, which is followed by shifts in infrared frequencies and Raman phonon modes. CuO nanocrystals were explored as an additive to catalytic decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP). AP decomposition underwent a two-stage process. Addition of CuO nanocrystals led to a downshift of high-temperature stage towards lower temperatures.

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Thermal decomposition of N,N′-diphenylguanidine (DPG) was investigated by simultaneous TG/DSC-FTIR techniques under nonisothermal conditions. Online FTIR measurements illustrate that aniline is a major product of DPG decomposition. The observation that the activation energy depends on the extent of conversion indicates that the DPG decomposition kinetics features multiple processes. The initial elimination of aniline from DPG involves two pathways because of the isomerization of DPG. Mass spectrometry and thin film chromatography suggest that there are two major intermediate products with the major one of C21N3H17. The most probable kinetic model deduced through multivariate nonlinear regression method agrees well with the experimental data with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The temperature-independent function of conversion f(α), activation energy E and the pre-exponential factor A of DPG decomposition was also established through model-fitting method in this research.

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Abstract  

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is popularly employed as a reaction reagent in cleaning processes for the chemical industry and semiconductor plants. By using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and vent sizing package 2 (VSP2), this study focused on the thermal decomposition reaction of H2O2 mixed with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with low (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 N), and high concentrations of 96 mass%, respectively. Thermokinetic data, such as exothermic onset temperature (T 0), heat of decomposition (ΔH d), pressure rise rate (dP/dt), and self-heating rate (dT/dt), were obtained and assessed by the DSC and VSP2 experiments. From the thermal decomposition reaction on various concentrations of H2SO4, the experimental data of T 0, ΔH, dP/dt, and dT/dt were obtained. Comparisons of the reactivity for H2O2 and H2O2 mixed with H2SO4 (lower and higher concentrations) were evaluated to corroborate the decomposition reaction in these systems.

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1,7-Dihydroxy-3,8-dimethoxyxanthone (X1) and 1,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyxanthone (X2) are two important xanthones of the Tibetan medicinal plant Gentianopsis paludosa (Hook. f.) Ma. They are very similar in structure, the only difference being exchange of OH and OCH3 at the 7 and 8 positions. By calculations based on the geometry of the molecules using the MM+ force field, the different distances between the hydroxyl groups of the two xanthones were obtained (4.64774 Å for X2 and 7.19412 Å for X1), therefore, the two hydroxyl groups of X1 should freely interact with more water molecules than those of X2 in aqueous solution. In other words, X2 is more hydrophobic than X1. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) was therefore chosen for separation of the compounds. The optimum separation conditions were: 20 mm borate + 20 mm SDS (pH 9.8) as running buffer, 17.5 kV applied potential, and detection wavelength 260 nm. The two xanthones were well separated in 9.0 min, with Gaussian peak shapes. The repeatability of the MEKC method (expressed as RSD) for X1 and X2 was 0.9 and 1.1%, respectively, for migration time, and 3.1 and 1.4% for peak area. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 0.41 μg mL−1 for X1 and 0.82 μg mL−1 for X2. The recovery of the MEKC method for the two xanthones was also satisfactory.

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Abstract  

Excess molar enthalpies of binary mixtures for tributyl phosphate (TBP)+methanol/ethanol were measured with a TAM air Isothermal calorimeter at 298.15 K and ambient. The results for xTBP+(1–x)CH3OH are negative in the whole range of composition, while the values for xTBP+(1–x)C2H5OH change from positive values at low x to small negative values at high x. The experimental results have been correlated with the Redlich–Kister polynomial. IR spectra of the mixtures were measured to investigate the effect of hydrogen bonding in the mixture.

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A highly sensitive and reproducible isocratic liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the analysis of artemisinin and its three commonly used derivatives (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, and artemether). The method involves a precolumn derivatization reaction with 4-carboxyl-2,6-dinitrobenzene diazonium ion to produce azo adducts that are UV-active. The critical parameters for the derivatization such as temperature, reaction time, and reagent concentrations were studied and optimized. The chromatographic separations were carried out on a C-18 column with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.1% acetic acid (60:40) at a flow rate of 1 mL min−1. UV detection was set at 254 nm. Dynamic linear calibration range was obtained at concentrations of artemisinins ranging from 0.26 to 1.44 μg mL−1. The low limits of detections of artemisinin, artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, and artemether were found to be 0.091, 0.0125, 0.0489, and 0.0128 ng μL−1, respectively. The developed methods were precise (RSD <3%) and accurate (% error < 5%). The developed methods may find application in dosage form analysis and pharmacokinetic studies.

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Abstract  

New complexes of the non-natural amino acid (p-iodo-phenylalanine) with divalent cobalt and nickel ions have been synthesized. The composition of the complexes is [M(IC6H4CH2CHNH2COO)2]2.5H2O (M=Co, Ni) and the crystal structure belongs to orthorhombic system. Infrared spectra indicate the nature of bonding in the complex. The first stage in the thermal decomposition process of the complex shows the presence of crystal water. The thermal decomposition process of cobalt complex differs from that of nickel. The intermediate and final residues in the thermal decomposition process have been analyzed to check the pyrolysis reactions. Thermal analysis indicates that the iodine atom of the ligand may coordinate to the metal ion in the lattice.

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Abstract  

The crystal C81H78N12O6Cd3 was synthesized and its structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The complex crystallizes in the monoclinic system space group P21/n with cell parameters, a=15.959(4) , b=26.222(3) , c=25.907(6) , β=101.60(2). The non-isothermal kinetics of the crystal was studied by use of non-isothermal TG and DTG curves. The kinetic parameters were analyzed by means of integral and differential methods, and mechanism functions of the thermal decomposition reaction for its second step were proposed. The kinetic equation of thermal decomposition is expressed as: dα/dt=Aexp(-E/RT)1.5(1-α)4/3[1/(1-α)1/3-1]−1. The average values of E(kJ mol−1) and lnA/s−1 are 339.25, 43.95, respectively.

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