Authors:Rafael G. dos Santos, Flávia L. Osório, José Alexandre S. Crippa and Jaime E. C. Hallak
Background and aims
Ayahuasca is a dimethyltryptamine- and β-carboline-rich hallucinogenic beverage traditionally used by indigenous groups of Northwest Amazonian for ritual and therapeutic purposes. Animal and human studies suggest that ayahuasca has antidepressant and anxiolytic potentials and has a good safety profile. However, anxiety-like reactions may also occur after ayahuasca intake, although they are rare.
Here, we describe a case of a non-medicated, symptom-free young female with generalized anxiety disorder, who experienced intense anxiety, panic, and hopelessness during and for 3 days after participating in an ayahuasca ritual. The symptoms appeared in the first hours after ayahuasca intake and were gradually reducing in the following hours/days, but were intense enough to cause significant suffering to her, who needed to seek psychiatric help and restarted pharmacological treatment.
Although “bad/horror trips” with anxiety features may occur during the acute effects of ayahuasca and other hallucinogens, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a subacute/prolonged anxiety-like reaction to this substance. Ayahuasca should be used with caution in people with a history of anxiety disorders.
Authors:A. Ochoa, J. Fechine, J.C. Escalona, J. García, S.G. dos Santos and M. Sobral da Silva
Excoecaria lucida Sw. is an evergreen shrub widely distributed in Cuba and throughout the Caribbean region. In spite of its extended traditional use as antiasthmatic and antimicrobial by the local population, scientific reports on the species are almost nonexistent. This paper focuses on the isolation and characterization of compounds present in the crude extract of E. lucida Sw. leaves through the combined use of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (medium pressure liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance 1H, and mass spectrometry). A total of 15 nonpolar substances were identified in the four main fractions obtained; some of these substances could be related with the antimicrobial properties attributed to the species.
Authors:Renato X. Coutinho, Eliziane S. Dávila, Wendel M. dos Santos, João B. T. Rocha, Diogo O. G. Souza, Vanderlei Folmer and Robson L. Puntel
In the present study we analyzed the Brazilian scientific production in the area of science education. The study was structured on: data by research groups registered in Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico; analysis of the post-graduate strictu sensu programs; analysis of theses and dissertations linked to post-graduate programs; and papers in international databases. Our research was conducted strictly via world wide web, from December 2009 to September 2010. It was found that both number of research groups, researchers, post-graduate programs, thesis, dissertations and papers presented a marked increase, especially in the last decade (from 2000 onwards). The major research centers were found to be located in public universities from Brazilian southeast and south regions. However, it was observed a tendency of decentralization, due to a recent investment in new public universities in the other Brazilian regions. So, this study sought to present an overview of the scientific production about science education and we expect that this information can help to expand the vision about the development of this research area in Brazil.