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Two chromatographic methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol, pamabrom, and pyrilamine maleate in bulk and combined pharmaceutical dosage form. The first method is an ultra-performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method, in which separation was carried out by gradient elution using C18 column and a mobile phase composed of solution A (acetonitrile) and solution B (phosphate buffer) (pH 3.5). The elution started with 20% (by volume) acetonitrile ramped up linearly to 100% in 2 min, then kept constant till the end of the run at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min−1 and ultraviolet (UV) detection at 277 nm. The second method depends on the densitometric determination of thin-layer chromatograms of the three drugs. Separation was carried out at 275 nm using chloroform‒acetonitrile (15:35, v/v) as the mobile phase. The proposed methods were validated according to the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines. Beer’s law was obeyed in the range of 5–100 μg mL−1 for paracetamol and 0.5–20 μg mL−1 for pamabrom and pyrilamine maleate, respectively, with mean recoveries of 98.40‒100.32% ± 0.551‒0.771 for the UPLC method. Linearity of the thin-layer chromatographic method was achieved in the range of 10‒280, 5‒45, and 1–20 ng per spot of the three drugs with mean recoveries of 98.75‒100.30% ± 0.971‒1.061, respectively. The two methods were successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of the cited drugs in their laboratory-prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical dosage form with good accuracy and precision. The results obtained were compared with those of the reported method and found to be in good agreement.

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A new low temperature differential scanning calorimeter is described which operates over the temperature range −150 °C to 700 °C. The equipment features a chromel heat flux DSC sensor plate located in a cobalt alloy heating chamber, enabling work to be carried out in oxidizing atmospheres to above 600 °C. Full data processing and programme control facilities are provided by an IBM compatible computer system. The performance of the instrument is illustrated by experiments on indium and poly (vinyl chloride).

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The lactic acid bacteria are key microorganisms for the production and preservation of fermented dairy products, cheeses, sourdough bread, and lacto-fermented vegetables. This study was developed to monitor lactic acid produced by Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393, as single strains and combined, in fermenting media by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy coupled to multivariate statistical analysis. Media containing different mixtures of carbohydrates were chosen as model fermenting media for monitoring lactic acid concentration by infrared spectroscopy, due to the fact that vegetable and animal food matrices could contain different carbohydrates as carbon sources. Three different types of media were obtained by adding different carbohydrates to a basic MRS medium. HPLC was used as reference method for lactic acid quantification. The calibration set (n=36) was used for building model, while a validation set (n=13) for testing the robustness of the developed model. The coefficients of determination between predicted and reference values were 0.986 and 0.965, while root mean square error for calibration and validation sets recorded values of 0.127 and 0.263 g·l−1, respectively. Results confirmed the efficiency of FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate statistics, as a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective tool for routine monitoring of lactic acid.

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Background and aims

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) imposes a potential public health threat worldwide. Gaming motives are potentially salient factors of IGD, but research on Chinese gaming motives is scarce. This study empirically evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire (C-MOGQ), the first inventory that measures seven different gaming motives applicable to all type of online games. We also investigated the associations between various gaming motives and IGD symptoms among Chinese gamers.

Methods

Three hundred and eighty-three Chinese adult online gamers (Mean age = 23.7 years) voluntarily completed our online, anonymous survey in December 2015.

Results

The confirmatory factor analysis results supported a bi-factor model with a general factor subsuming all C-MOGQ items (General Motivation) and seven uncorrelated domain-specific factors (Escape, Coping, Fantasy, Skill Development, Recreation, Competition, and Social). High internal consistencies of the overall scale and subscales were observed. The criterion-related validity of this Chinese version was also supported by the positive correlations of C-MOGQ scale scores with psychological need satisfaction and time spent gaming. Furthermore, we found that high General Motivation (coupled with high Escape motive and low Skill Development motive) was associated with more IGD symptoms reported by our Chinese participants.

Discussion and conclusions

Our findings demonstrated the utility of C-MOGQ in measuring gaming motives of Chinese online gamers, and we recommend the consideration of both its total score and subscale scores in future studies.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Joseph T. F. Lau, Danielle L. Walden, Anise M. S. Wu, Kit-man Cheng, Mason C. M. Lau, and Phoenix K. H. Mo

Background and aims

The aim of the study is to investigate (a) whether probable depression status assessed at baseline prospectively predicted new incidence of Internet addiction (IA) at the 12-month follow-up and (b) whether IA status assessed at baseline prospectively predicted new incidence of probable depression at follow-up.

Methods

We conducted a 12-month cohort study (n = 8,286) among Hong Kong secondary students, and derived two subsamples. The first subsample (n = 6,954) included students who were non-IA at baseline, using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (≤63), and another included non-depressed cases at baseline (n = 3,589), using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (<16).

Results

In the first subsample, 11.5% of the non-IA cases developed IA during follow-up, and probable depression status at baseline significantly predicted new incidence of IA [severe depression: adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 2.50, 95% CI = 2.07, 3.01; moderate: ORa = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.45, 2.28; mild: ORa = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.32, 2.05; reference: non-depressed], after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. In the second subsample, 38.9% of those non-depressed participants developed probable depression during follow-up. Adjusted analysis showed that baseline IA status also significantly predicted new incidence of probable depression (ORa = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.18, 2.09).

Discussion and conclusions

The high incidence of probable depression is a concern that warrants interventions, as depression has lasting harmful effects in adolescents. Baseline probable depression predicted IA at follow-up and vice versa, among those who were free from IA/probable depression at baseline. Healthcare workers, teachers, and parents need to be made aware of this bidirectional finding. Interventions, both IA and depression prevention, should thus take both problems into consideration.

Open access
Pollack Periodica
Authors: Mohammed S. A. Khedr, Mona F. Ali, Abdullah M. A. Kamel, and Manal A. A. El-Ghanam

Abstract

This research will shed light on studying a terrazzo pavement in Prince Mohamed Ali Museum (the case study). The authors used visual inspection, stereo microscope, USB microscope, XRPD analysis, and SEM.EDX to identify its components, deterioration aspects and execution techniques. The XRPD and SEM.EDX results revealed that Portland cement was used in the three layers of terrazzo because of the detection of Hatrurite, Alite, Anorthite, Albite, Aragonite, etc. Many pigments were used in the topping terrazzo layer as; Goethite, Greenalite, Hematite, Azurite and Magnetite. The divider strips were made of brass alloy and the topping layer chips were prepared from basalt, marble and sea shells.

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