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Abstract  

A new method is introduced in this paper for calculating alpha particle energy versus traveled distance (APETD) in air as emitted from 241Am and 230Th sources as well as the alpha range versus its energy and its energy versus distance. This method is to derive the stated relevant equations and in particular to speed up the calculation of E(x) by a Monte-Carlo simulation. By a fitting procedure, an analytical formula E(x) was determined in terms of a series of powers of distance x. Then a randomly sampled x can be quickly transformed into a corresponding energy E. The APETD calculations were run on a Microsoft Windows 7 32 bit operating system with a maximum usable memory of 3 GB. The results of calculations for alphas of the above two radionuclides in air compared to those of others using a different method are in good agreement. The above stated equations as derived in this paper are presented and the process time for applying the new method has been greatly improved.

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Introduction

Sleep quality is an essential aspect in human health and function. Considering high prevalence of using smartphones and social networks among students and their impact on sleep quality, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between the overuse of cell phone and addiction to social networks and students’ sleep quality.

Materials and methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran in 2018. Using cluster sampling, 321 students from different disciplines were selected. Data gathering tools consisted of the questionnaire of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Cell phone use and addiction to social networks were assessed using Cell Phone Overuse Scale and a researcher-made questionnaire, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 19) and Pearson’s correlation test.

Results

The mean total score of sleep quality in students was 6.58 ± 1.05. There was a positive and significant correlation between sleep quality and social networks addiction score (p < 0.05, r = 0.5) and cell phone overuse (p < 0.05, r = 0.44); this is an inverse correlation, because higher scores of the total PSQI denote a lower sleep quality and, in Cell Phone Overuse Scale, higher scores shows overuse.

Conclusions

According to the findings of this study, there was a significant statistical relationship between the overuse of cell phone and social networks and students’ sleep quality. In other words, students who have had overuse of cell phones had poorer sleep quality. Therefore, providing effective educational programs to improve the sleep quality in this group is essential.

Open access

Introduction

Sleep quality is an essential aspect in human health and function. Considering high prevalence of using smartphones and social networks among students and their impact on sleep quality, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between the overuse of cell phone and addiction to social networks and students’ sleep quality.

Materials and methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran in 2018. Using cluster sampling, 321 students from different disciplines were selected. Data gathering tools consisted of the questionnaire of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Cell phone use and addiction to social networks were assessed using Cell Phone Overuse Scale and a researcher-made questionnaire, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 19) and Pearson’s correlation test.

Results

The mean total score of sleep quality in students was 6.58 ± 1.05. There was a positive and significant correlation between sleep quality and social networks addiction score (p < 0.05, r = 0.5) and cell phone overuse (p < 0.05, r = 0.44); this is an inverse correlation, because higher scores of the total PSQI denote a lower sleep quality and, in Cell Phone Overuse Scale, higher scores shows overuse.

Conclusions

According to the findings of this study, there was a significant statistical relationship between the overuse of cell phone and social networks and students’ sleep quality. In other words, students who have had overuse of cell phones had poorer sleep quality. Therefore, providing effective educational programs to improve the sleep quality in this group is essential.

Open access
Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors: Ebrahim Ezzati, Saeed Mohammadi, Hassanali Karimpour, Javad Amini Saman, Afshin Goodarzi, Amir Jalali, Afshin Almasi, Kamran Vafaei and Rasool Kawyannejad

Introduction

Negligence of proper time and poor performance of resuscitation team can lead to more mortality and negative consequences of cardiac arrest, as well as less survival. This study was conducted with objective of determining the arrival time of physician and resuscitation team to survive the victims of cardiopulmonary arrest.

Materials and methods

In this prospective and descriptive-analytic study, the resuscitation performance and the arrival time of resuscitation team in 143 inpatients who had been diagnosed with witnessed cardiopulmonary arrest were examined using a researcher-made checklist. Data analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric statistical tests and SPSS.

Results

Initial survival rate was 26.6%. In general, the mean time of physician’s presence after the code announcement in minutes and seconds was 02:31 ± 01:22. It was also 02:24 ± 01:15 in successful cases and 02:34 ± 01:25 in unsuccessful cases. Independent t-test did not show a significant difference between the physician’s presence time and the rate of initial successful resuscitation (p = 0.504). The time of first shock after observing ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia (in minutes and seconds) was 01:30 ± 00:47. According to independent t-test, the aforementioned time was less than the mean time (02:31 ± 01:22) of physician’s presence (p < 0.001).

Conclusions

In this study, the initial survival rate in comparison to other regions in the country was almost more favorable and it was similar to global norms. In this study, the starting time of resuscitation was within the acceptable range. There was no relationship between the presence of physician and the initial survival rate of patients, as well as the use of defibrillator (by physician compared to other team members) and intubation with the initial survival rate. This could indicate the adequate performance of resuscitation team in the absence of physician on the condition of having sufficient knowledge and skill.

Open access
Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors: Ebrahim Ezzati, Saeed Mohammadi, Hassanali Karimpour, Javad Amini Saman, Afshin Goodarzi, Amir Jalali, Afshin Almasi, Kamran Vafaei and Rasool Kawyannejad

Introduction

Negligence of proper time and poor performance of resuscitation team can lead to more mortality and negative consequences of cardiac arrest, as well as less survival. This study was conducted with objective of determining the arrival time of physician and resuscitation team to survive the victims of cardiopulmonary arrest.

Materials and methods

In this prospective and descriptive-analytic study, the resuscitation performance and the arrival time of resuscitation team in 143 inpatients who had been diagnosed with witnessed cardiopulmonary arrest were examined using a researcher-made checklist. Data analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric statistical tests and SPSS.

Results

Initial survival rate was 26.6%. In general, the mean time of physician’s presence after the code announcement in minutes and seconds was 02:31 ± 01:22. It was also 02:24 ± 01:15 in successful cases and 02:34 ± 01:25 in unsuccessful cases. Independent t-test did not show a significant difference between the physician’s presence time and the rate of initial successful resuscitation (p = 0.504). The time of first shock after observing ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia (in minutes and seconds) was 01:30 ± 00:47. According to independent t-test, the aforementioned time was less than the mean time (02:31 ± 01:22) of physician’s presence (p < 0.001).

Conclusions

In this study, the initial survival rate in comparison to other regions in the country was almost more favorable and it was similar to global norms. In this study, the starting time of resuscitation was within the acceptable range. There was no relationship between the presence of physician and the initial survival rate of patients, as well as the use of defibrillator (by physician compared to other team members) and intubation with the initial survival rate. This could indicate the adequate performance of resuscitation team in the absence of physician on the condition of having sufficient knowledge and skill.

Open access
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Mojtaba Moosavian, Sakineh Seyed-Mohammadi, Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh, Saeed Khoshnood, Aram Asarehzadegan Dezfuli, Morteza Saki, Gholamreza Ghaderian, Fatemeh Shahi, Mahtab Abdi and Fariba Abbasi

Shigella spp. are a major cause of bacillary dysentery, particularly among children in developing countries such as Iran. This study aimed to investigate the presence of two important Shigella enterotoxins (ShET-1 and ShET-2), encoded by the set and sen genes, respectively, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay among Shigella species isolated from children affected by shigellosis in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. In this cross-sectional study, from June 2016 to April 2017, altogether 117 Shigella isolates were collected from fecal specimens of children aged <15 years with diarrhea in Ahvaz, southwest Iran. All isolates were identified by standard microbiological and molecular methods. The presence of enterotoxin genes was determined by PCR. The most prevalent isolate was Shigella flexneri (47.9%), followed by Shigella sonnei (41%) and Shigella boydii (11.1%), respectively. Shigella dysenteriae was not detected in patients’ samples. The frequencies of set1A, set1B, and sen genes were 5.1% (6/117), 15.4% (18/117), and 76.9% (90/117), respectively. This study provides initial background on the prevalence and distribution of the Shigella enterotoxin genes in Shigella isolates in southwest of Iran. In addition, this study revealed a high prevalence of sen enterotoxin gene in Shigella species.

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