In this study, it was aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of an ethanolic extract of Basella alba L. on gentamycin (GM)-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. In the toxic group, rats were administered GM only (100 mg/kg, i.p.) for 8 days. In drug treated groups, rats were pretreated with B. alba (250 and 500 mg/kg per day orally) for 14 days and co-treated with GM for 8 days. After 24 h of the last dose, blood, urine, and tissue samples were collected from the animals. GM when administered induced a marked renal failure, characterized by a significant increase in serum and urine creatinine, urea, uric acid, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and protein levels. Besides, there were elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) level and decrease in the concentration of total proteins (TPs) and free -SH in kidney tissue, which are indicators of oxidative stress of kidney. The extract also significantly reduced the GM-induced elevated serum and urine levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, protein, creatinine, urea, uric acid, and GGT. The tissue MDA level was also significantly diminished; the decreased free -SH and TP levels were significantly replenished by an ethanolic extract of B. alba treatment. The experimental results suggest that B. alba extract protected GM-induced nephrotoxicity, possibly by enhancing renal antioxidant system. The findings suggest the potential therapeutic use of B. alba as a novel nephroprotective agent.
Authors:Saleh Alqasoumi, Prawez Alam, and Maged Abdel-Kader
High-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) densitometric method for analysis of arbutin in commercial whitening creams was developed and validated. Aluminum-backed silica gel 60 F254 plates were used as stationary phase while methanol-chloroform-acetic acid 3.5:6:0.5 (%, v/v/v) mixture was used as mobile phase. Under these chromatographic conditions, arbutin was well separated from other ingredients. This system was found to give a well defined, sharp, and compact spot of arbutin at retention factor (RF) value of 0.40 ± 0.02. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 42.25 and 112.45 ng per spot respectively. The proposed method with high degree of precision and accuracy was employed for the analysis of arbutin both qualitatively and quantitatively in commercial whitening creams. Due to the efficiency of the method in separating arbutin from other ingredients including its degradation products, it can be applied as a stability-indicating method.
Authors:Areej Al-Taweel, Saleh Alqasoumi, Prawez Alam, and Maged Abdel-Kader
An attempt was made to develop and validate a simple, accurate high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the simultaneous determination of diosmin, hesperidin, and ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical preparations. Analysis was performed on 10 cm × 20 cm aluminum-backed plates coated with 0.2 mm layers of silica gel 60 F254 (Merck, Germany). CAMAG TLC Scanner III was used for UV densitometric scanning. The used HPTLC system was found to give sharp, symmetrical, and well-resolved peaks at RF values of 0.34 ± 0.02, 0.40 ± 0.04, and 0.56 ± 0.03, and linearity was found in the ranges 100–800 ng/spot (r2 = 0.9985), 100–800 ng/spot (r2 = 0.9966), and 50–400 ng/spot (r2 = 0.9951) for diosmin, hesperidin, and ascorbic acid, respectively.
Authors:Saleh Alqasoumi, Mohammed Al-Dosari, Mohammed Al-Sohaibani, Tawfeq Al-Howiriny, Mohammed Al-Yahya, and Syed Rafatullah
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) is a vegetable known to possess various therapeutic properties. We evaluated the anti-ulcerogenic property of ethanolic extract of dried calyces (EEHS) in different ulcer models in Wistar albino rats. The extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, orally has a significant effect in cold restraint stress, pylorus ligation, necrotizing agents (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH and 25% NaCl) and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer models. The extract showed an ability to significantly protect against gastric mucosal injury in all models used. Furthermore, EEHS has significantly decreased the basal gastric acid secretion, as well as significantly increased gastric wall mucus secretion (GWM) and non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) concentrations in gastric tissue. Whereas, the extract significantly reduced the ethanol-induced elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the rat stomach. These pharmacological and biochemical findings were further supported by the histological assessment of the stomach. The phytochemical constituents present in the H. sabdariffa calyces may contribute to its anti-ulcer activity through one or more mechanism(s), including the antisecretory and antioxidant nature of the extract.
Authors:Yousif Asiri, Abdlatif Al-Dhawailie, Saleh Alqasoumi, Mohammed Al-Yahya, and Syed Rafatullah
From prehistoric times, herbal medicine has been used by various communities and civilizations throughout the world. This trend continues to the present day. For the past several decades, herbal medicines have been increasingly consumed by people without prescription. They are traditionally considered as harmless since they belong to natural sources. Herbal formulations which have reached widespread acceptability as therapeutic agents are such as antidiabetics, anti-arthritics, aphrodisiacs, hepatoprotectives, cough remedies, memory enhancers and adoptogens. However, with a more efficient case reporting of adverse drug reactions, the hazards of herbal medicines as self prescriptions have been well recorded. In this regard the World Health Organization (WHO) has set specific guidelines for the assessment of the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines. The purpose of pharmacovigilance is to detect, assess and understand, and to prevent the adverse effects or any other possible drug-related problems, which is not only confined to chemical drugs, but extended to herbal, traditional and complementary medicines, biologicals, vaccines, blood products and medical devices. Herbal pharmacovigilance should be implemented and authorities should record apart from existing information on various aspects of the single herb and/or compound herbal formulations on concomitant use with chemical drugs, adverse drug reaction, delayed or acute toxic effects, allergies etc. Most over-the-counter herbal products like ginseng have drawn great public attention but there are several case reports mentioned in the literature of adverse drug reactions of herbal drugs which are generally considered safe. In this paper, we have succinctly reviewed the various aspects associated with the pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines ranging from the pathophysiology to the various clinical elements of adverse drug reactions associated with herbal medicine.
A densitometric high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for analysis of hydroquinone has been developed and validated. Chromatography was performed on aluminum foilbacked silica gel 60 F254 plates with chloroform-methanol 85:15 (% v/v) as mobile phase. This system furnished a compact band for hydroquinone at RF 0.51. Hydroquinone was quantified densitometrically at 289 nm. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 38.50 and 115.50 ng per band, respectively. High precision and accuracy were achieved. The method was used for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of hydroquinone in commercial formulations. Because the method can effectively separate the hydroquinone in the presence of its degradation products, it can be used as a stability-indicating method.
Authors:Perwez Alam, Omer Basudan, Nasir Siddiqui, Adnan Al-Rehaily, Saleh Alqasoumi, Maged Abdel-Kader, Abd Donia, and Prawez Alam
A simple and sensitive high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed for the evaluation of biomarker lupeol in the leaves of five different species of genus Ficus (Ficus carica, Ficus nitida, Ficus ingens, Ficus palmata, and Ficus vest) belonging to family Moraceae. Chromatography was performed on glass-backed silica gel 60 F254 precoated HPTLC plates with solvents toluene-methanol (9:1, v/v) as the mobile phase. After development, the HPTLC plate was derivatized with p-anisaldehyde reagent, scanned, and quantified at 540 nm. The system was found to give compact spot for lupeol at RF = 0.32 ± 0.01. The precisions and accuracy (n = 6) for lupeol were found to be 1.47–1.64% and 1.63–1.86%, and 99–100% and 99.4–99.7%, respectively, for inter-day and intra-day. Lupeol was found to be present in four species, i.e., F. carica (0.4%, w/w), F. nitida (1.4%, w/w), F. palmata (0.33%, w/w), and F. vest (0.59%, w/w), while it was absent in F. ingens. The statistical analysis proved that the developed method is reproducible and selective. The developed method can be used as an important tool to assure the therapeutic dose of active ingredients in herbal formulations as well as for standardization and quality control of bulk drugs and in-process formulations. This method can also be employed for the further study of degradation kinetics and determination of lupeol in plasma and other biological fluids.
Authors:Omer A. Basudan, Perwez Alam, Nasir A. Siddiqui, Mohamed F. Alajmi, Adnan J. Alrehaily, Saleh I. Alqasoumi, Maged S. Abdel-Kader, Prawez Alam, and Abd El Raheim M. Donia
A simple and sensitive high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed for the evaluation of biomarker β-amyrin in the leaves of fve different species of genus Ficus (Ficus carica, Ficus nitida, Ficus ingens, Ficus palmata, and Ficus vasta) grown in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Chromatography was performed on glass-backed silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates with solvents toluene–methanol (9:1, v/v) as the mobile phase. After development, the HPTLC plate was derivatized with p-anisalde-hydereagent to give well-resolved and compact spot of β-amyrin. Scanning and quantifcation were done at 550 nm. The system was found to give compact spot for β-amyrin at RF = 0.58. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r2 = 0.998 with respect to area in the concentration range of 100–900 ng. The regression equation for β-amyrin standard was found to be Y = 5.835X + 87. The precisions (n = 6) for β-amyrin were found to be 1.64–1.77% and 1.68–1.84%, respectively, for intra-day and inter-day batches, and the recovery values were found to be 97.6–98.3%. β-Amyrin was found to be present in three species, i.e., F. carica (0.29%, w/w), F. nitida (0. 5 4% w/w), and F. p almata (0.31%, w/w), while it was absent in F. vasta and F. ingens. The statistical analysis proves that the developed method for the quantifcation of β-amyrin is reproducible; hence, it can beemployed for the determination of β-amyrin in plasma and other biological fuids as well as in fnished products avai lable in the market.
Authors:Perwez Alam, Tawfeq A. Alhowiriny, Nasir A. Siddiqui, Saleh I. Alqasoumi, Omer A. Basudan, Azmat Ali Khan, Abdullah T. Alhowiriny, and Nawazish Alam
Extensive research on Ficus species has shown their excellent cytotoxic potential which motivated the authors for further evaluation of its other species. In this article, the β-sitosterol content in the chloroform extract of the leaves of five Ficus species (Ficus carica [FCCE], Ficus nitida [FNCE], Ficus ingens [FICE], Ficus palmata [FPCE], and Ficus vasta [FVCE]) was estimated by a validated high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method along with cytotoxic activity. The chromatography was performed on glass-backed silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates with hexane and ethyl acetate (8:2, v/v) as the mobile phase. The developed plate was derivatized with p-anisaldehyde reagent, scanned, and quantified at λ = 550 nm. It furnished a compact and intense peak of β-sitosterol at RF = 0.17 ± 0.001. The contents of β-sitosterol (μg mg−1 of the dried weight of the extract) in the selected Ficus species were found as: FCCE (1.047 μg mg−1) > FVCE (0.771 μg mg−1) > FNCE (0.372 μg mg−1) > FPCE (0.309 μg mg−1), while it was absent in F. ingens. Methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to compare the cytotoxic potential of all Ficus species against HepG2 (liver), HEK-293 (kidney), MCF-7 (breast), and MDA-MB 231 (breast) cell lines. The FCCE exhibited good cytotoxic property against HepG2, HEK-293, and MDA-MB-231 cells (IC50: 32.5, 41.4, and 47.3 μg mL−1, respectively), while FICE showed against HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 cells (IC50: 31.4 and 41.2 μg mL−1, respectively). The remaining Ficus extracts were found to be very less effective or insignificant. The cytotoxic property of FCCE is also supported by the HPTLC estimation of β-sitosterol which is reported to exhibit anticancer properties by interfering with multiple cell signaling pathways, including cell cycle, apoptosis, and proliferation. Our data suggest that the developed HPTLC method can be further employed in the analysis of marketed herbal formulations, and the active Ficus species can be further subjected to isolation of cytotoxic phytoconstituents.