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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Shaghayegh Shahkolahi
Pegah Shakibnia
Shahla Shahbazi
Samira Sabzi
Farzad Badmasti
Mohammad Reza Asadi Karam
, and
Mehri Habibi


In the present study a total of 200 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were collected from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Tehran, Iran. Antibiotic resistance was determined by disk diffusion and broth dilution methods. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpCs was performed using phenotypic tests. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to detect the ESBL, AmpC, and integron genes. Analysis of AmpC and cassette arrays of integron genes was performed using DNA sequencing. Plasmids were analyzed by PCR-based replicon typing and conjugation. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were applied to explore the genomic relatedness among the isolates. The highest levels of resistance were observed against ampicillin (100%), followed by piperacillin (57.5%), ceftazidime (46%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (44%), ciprofloxacin (32.5%), and imipenem (19%). Approximately, 66.5% of isolates harbored at least one of the beta-lactamase genes (bla TEM, bla SHV, bla CTX-M, and bla OXA-1). In addition, 22.5% of isolates carried at least one of the AmpC genes including bla DHA and bla CIT. Integron class I was the most prevalent integron among resistant isolates. According to the results of replicon typing, IncFII, IncL/M, and IncA/C were the most frequent replicons, respectively. All selected isolates were able to transfer bla CTX-M, also two isolates transferred the bla DHA-1 gene to Escherichia coli K12 through conjugation. Finally, 21 isolates were categorized into 4 pulsotypes and 11 unique clusters in PFGE. MLST identified ST147 and ST11 sequence types but ST147 was the most prevalent in the current study.

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