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  • Author or Editor: Sang Eun Lee x
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Abstract

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a common zoonosis prevalent in many countries with grave economic consequences. Most developed and developing countries have implemented the test-and-slaughter policy to protect public health and reduce economic losses in the cattle industry. The official diagnosis of bTB is based on assays dependent on cell-mediated immunity (CMI). CMI-based diagnosis demonstrates diagnostic incapability at late stages of infection, which could be overcome by diagnosis based on humoral immunity (HI). Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify and define the B cell antigenome of Mycobacterium bovis. In this study, the B cell antigenome of culture filtrate proteins (CFP) was defined by mass spectrometry-based proteomics technology. Four spots were detected on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) against M. bovis-positive serum in an immunoblotting experiment. Twenty-one proteins were identified in four spots by proteomic tools, such as Mb2900, Mb2898, Mb0448, Mb3834c, Mb1918c, Mb0134c, Mb0358 and Mb1868c, which are known B cell antigens, including 13 new proteins, i.e. Mb3751, Mb2006c, Mb3276c, Mb2244, Mb1164c, Mb2553c, Mb2946c, Mb1849c, Mb1511c, Mb1034c, Mb2616c, Mb0854c and Mb2267. These new proteins identified by 2-DE and immunoblotting were the B cell antigens used in developing serological diagnostic methods based on HI to bTB.

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Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis
Authors: Saet Byul Kim, Mi Ran Lee, Eun Duck Park, Sang Min Lee, HyoKyu Lee, Ki Hyun Park and Myung-June Park

Abstract

A kinetic model of the homogeneous conversion of d-xylose in high temperature water (HTW) was developed. Experimental testing evaluated the effects of operating conditions on xylose conversion and furfural selectivity, with furfural yields of up to 60% observed without the use of acid catalysts. The reaction order for the decomposition of d-xylose was assumed to be above two, while the conversion of d-xylose to furfural and the degradation of furfural were first order reactions. Estimated kinetic parameters were within the range of values reported in the literature. The activation energy of furfural production showed that the ionization rate was high enough for HTW to replace acid catalysts. Simulated results from this model were in good agreement with experimental data, allowing the model to aid reactor design for the maximization of productivity.

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A number of essential oils from citrus peels are claimed to have biological activities. Citrus peel, called ‘Jin-Pi’, is used in traditional medicine for digestion, severe cold, and fever. However, the antibacterial activities against skin pathogens and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oils of Citrus sunki (JinGyul) and Fortunella japonica var. margarita (GumGyul) have not yet been described. Therefore, in this study, the essential oils of the citrus species C. sunki (CSE) and F. japonica var. margarita (FJE), both native to the island of Jeju, Korea, were examined for their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities against skin pathogens. Four human skin pathogenic microorganisms, Staphylococcus epidermidis CCARM 3709, Propionibacterium acnes CCARM 0081, Malassezia furfur KCCM 12679, and Candida albicans KCCM 11282, were studied. CSE and FJE exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against most of the pathogenic bacteria and yeast strains that were tested. Interestingly, CSE and FJE even showed antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant S. epidermidis CCARM 3710, S. epidermidis CCARM 3711, P. acnes CCARM9009, and P. acnes CCARM9010 strains. In addition, CSE and FJE reduced the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced secretion of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 cells, indicating that they have anti-inflammatory effects. We also analysed the chemical composition of the oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and identified several major components, including dl-limonene (68.18%) and β-myrcene (4.36%) for CSE, and dl-limonene (61.58%) and carvone (6.36%) for FJE. Taken together, these findings indicate that CSE and FJE have great potential to be used in human skin health applications.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Sang Hoon Lee, Jooyeon Jamie Im, Jin Kyoung Oh, Eun Kyoung Choi, Sujung Yoon, Marom Bikson, In-Uk Song, Hyeonseok Jeong and Yong-An Chung

Aim

Excessive use of online games can have negative influences on mental health and daily functioning. Although the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been investigated for the treatment of addiction, it has not been evaluated for excessive online game use. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility and tolerability of tDCS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in online gamers.

Methods

A total of 15 online gamers received 12 active tDCS sessions over the DLPFC (anodal left/cathodal right, 2 mA for 30 min, 3 times per week for 4 weeks). Before and after tDCS sessions, all participants underwent 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans and completed the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Brief Self Control Scale (BSCS), and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II).

Results

After tDCS sessions, weekly hours spent on games (p = .02) and scores of IAT (p < .001) and BDI-II (p = .01) were decreased, whereas BSCS score was increased (p = .01). Increases in self-control were associated with decreases in both addiction severity (p = .002) and time spent on games (p = .02). Moreover, abnormal right-greater-than-left asymmetry of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the DLPFC was partially alleviated (p = .04).

Conclusions

Our preliminary results suggest that tDCS may be useful for reducing online game use by improving interhemispheric balance of glucose metabolism in the DLPFC and enhancing self-control. Larger sham-controlled studies with longer follow-up period are warranted to validate the efficacy of tDCS in gamers.

Open access