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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Raheem Shahzad, Muhammad Waqas, Abdul Latif Khan, Khadija Al-Hosni, Sang-Mo Kang, Chang-Woo Seo, and In-Jung Lee

Bacterial endophytes from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere have been used to produce bioactive metabolites and to promote plant growth. However, little is known about the endophytes residing in seeds. This study aimed to isolate and identify seed-borne bacterial endophytes from rice and elucidate their potential for phytohormone production and growth enhancement. The isolated endophytes included Micrococcus yunnanensis RWL-2, Micrococcus luteus RWL-3, Enterobacter soli RWL-4, Leclercia adecarboxylata RWL-5, Pantoea dispersa RWL-6, and Staphylococcus epidermidis RWL-7, which were identified using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. These strains were analyzed for indoleacetic acid (IAA) production by using GC-MS and IAA was found in the range of 11.50 ± 0.77 μg ml−1 to 38.80 ± 1.35 μg ml−1. We also assessed the strains for plant growth promoting potential because these isolates were able to produce IAA in pure culture. Most of the growth attributes of rice plants (shoot and root length, fresh and dry biomass, and chlorophyll content) were significantly increased by bacterial endophytes compared to the controls. These results show that IAA producing bacterial endophytes can improve hostplant growth traits and can be used as bio-fertilizers.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Hoonsung Choi, Sang In Lee, Shanmugam Sureshkumar, Mi-Hyang Jeon, Jeom Sun Kim, Mi-Ryung Park, Kyung-Woon Kim, Ik-Soo Jeon, Sukchan Lee, and Sung June Byun

The 3D8 single-chain variable fragment (scFv) is a mini-antibody sequence with independent nuclease activity that shows antiviral effects against all types of viruses in chickens and mice. In this study, chickens were treated daily with an oral dose of 109 CFU Lactobacillus paracasei (L. paracasei) expressing either a secreted or anchored 3D8 scFv for three weeks. After L. paracasei administration, the chickens were challenged with avian influenza virus (AIV). From each experimental group, three chickens were directly infected with 100 µL of 107.5 EID50/mL H9N2 AIV and seven chickens were indirectly challenged through contact transmission. oropharyngeal and cloacal swab samples were collected at 3, 5, 7, and 9 days post-inoculation (dpi) from AIV-challenged chickens, AIV Shedding titres were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Contact transmission in the chickens that were fed 3D8 scFv-secreting L. paracasei showed a significant reduction in viral shedding when compared with other groups. These results suggest that L. paracasei secreting 3D8 provides a basis for the development of ingestible antiviral probiotics with activity against AIV.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Sang Hoon Lee, Jooyeon Jamie Im, Jin Kyoung Oh, Eun Kyoung Choi, Sujung Yoon, Marom Bikson, In-Uk Song, Hyeonseok Jeong, and Yong-An Chung

Aim

Excessive use of online games can have negative influences on mental health and daily functioning. Although the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been investigated for the treatment of addiction, it has not been evaluated for excessive online game use. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility and tolerability of tDCS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in online gamers.

Methods

A total of 15 online gamers received 12 active tDCS sessions over the DLPFC (anodal left/cathodal right, 2 mA for 30 min, 3 times per week for 4 weeks). Before and after tDCS sessions, all participants underwent 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans and completed the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Brief Self Control Scale (BSCS), and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II).

Results

After tDCS sessions, weekly hours spent on games (p = .02) and scores of IAT (p < .001) and BDI-II (p = .01) were decreased, whereas BSCS score was increased (p = .01). Increases in self-control were associated with decreases in both addiction severity (p = .002) and time spent on games (p = .02). Moreover, abnormal right-greater-than-left asymmetry of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the DLPFC was partially alleviated (p = .04).

Conclusions

Our preliminary results suggest that tDCS may be useful for reducing online game use by improving interhemispheric balance of glucose metabolism in the DLPFC and enhancing self-control. Larger sham-controlled studies with longer follow-up period are warranted to validate the efficacy of tDCS in gamers.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Hyeonseok Jeong, Jin Kyoung Oh, Eun Kyoung Choi, Jooyeon Jamie Im, Sujung Yoon, Helena Knotkova, Marom Bikson, In-Uk Song, Sang Hoon Lee, and Yong-An Chung

Abstract

Background and aims

Some online gamers may encounter difficulties in controlling their gaming behavior. Previous studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on various kinds of addiction. This study investigated the effects of tDCS on addictive behavior and regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglu) in problematic online gamers.

Methods

Problematic online gamers were randomized and received 12 sessions of either active (n = 13) or sham tDCS (n = 13) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex over 4 weeks (anode F3/cathode F4, 2 mA for 30 min, 3 sessions per week). Participants underwent brain 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans and completed questionnaires including the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS), and Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scales (BIS/BAS) at the baseline and 4-week follow-up.

Results

Significant decreases in time spent on gaming (P = 0.005), BIS (P = 0.03), BAS-fun seeking (P = 0.04), and BAS-reward responsiveness (P = 0.01), and increases in BSCS (P = 0.03) were found in the active tDCS group, while decreases in IAT were shown in both groups (P < 0.001). Group-by-time interaction effects were not significant for these measures. Increases in BSCS scores were correlated with decreases in IAT scores in the active group (β = −0.85, P < 0.001). rCMRglu in the left putamen, pallidum, and insula was increased in the active group compared to the sham group (P for interaction < 0.001).

Discussion and conclusions

tDCS may be beneficial for problematic online gaming potentially through changes in self-control, motivation, and striatal/insular metabolism. Further larger studies with longer follow-up period are warranted to confirm our findings.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Hyeonseok Jeong, Jin Kyoung Oh, Eun Kyoung Choi, Jooyeon Jamie Im, Sujung Yoon, Helena Knotkova, Marom Bikson, In-Uk Song, Sang Hoon Lee, and Yong-An Chung

Abstract

Background and aims

Some online gamers may encounter difficulties in controlling their gaming behavior. Previous studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on various kinds of addiction. This study investigated the effects of tDCS on addictive behavior and regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglu) in problematic online gamers.

Methods

Problematic online gamers were randomized and received 12 sessions of either active (n = 13) or sham tDCS (n = 13) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex over 4 weeks (anode F3/cathode F4, 2 mA for 30 min, 3 sessions per week). Participants underwent brain 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans and completed questionnaires including the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS), and Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scales (BIS/BAS) at the baseline and 4-week follow-up.

Results

Significant decreases in time spent on gaming (P = 0.005), BIS (P = 0.03), BAS-fun seeking (P = 0.04), and BAS-reward responsiveness (P = 0.01), and increases in BSCS (P = 0.03) were found in the active tDCS group, while decreases in IAT were shown in both groups (P < 0.001). Group-by-time interaction effects were not significant for these measures. Increases in BSCS scores were correlated with decreases in IAT scores in the active group (β = −0.85, P < 0.001). rCMRglu in the left putamen, pallidum, and insula was increased in the active group compared to the sham group (P for interaction < 0.001).

Discussion and conclusions

tDCS may be beneficial for problematic online gaming potentially through changes in self-control, motivation, and striatal/insular metabolism. Further larger studies with longer follow-up period are warranted to confirm our findings.

Open access