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Abstract  

The neutron energy spectrum of the following sources were measured using a fast neutron spectrometer with the NE-213 liquid scintillator: 252Cf, Am-Be and D(d,n)3He reaction from a 3 MeV Pelletron accelerator in Tokyo Institute of Technology. The measured proton recoil pulse height data of 252Cf, Am-Be and D(d,n)3He were unfolded using the mathematical program to obtain the neutron energy spectrum. The 252Cf and Am-Be neutron energy spectra were measured and the results obtained showed a good agreement with the spectra usually published in the literature. The neutron energy spectrum from D(d,n)3He was measured and the results obtained also showed a good agreement with the calculation by time of flight (TOF) methods.

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Abstract  

Applicability of montmorillonite, manganese oxide-coated montmorillonite (MOCM) and iron oxide-coated montmorillonite (IOCM) as backfill materials in permeable reactive barrier (PRB) to remediate contaminated groundwater was investigated. Single- and bi-solute competitive sorptions of Co, Sr and Cs were conducted. The Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich models fitted the single-solute sorption data well (R 2 > 0.95). Maximum sorption capacities (q mL) of Co and Sr predicted by the Langmuir model were in the order of MOCM (0.37 mmol/g for Co and 0.28 mmol/g for Sr) > montmorillonite (0.27 mmol/g for Co and 0.19 mmol/g for Sr) ≈ IOCM (0.23 mmol/g for Co and 0.21 mmol/g for Sr), while those of Cs were in the order of montmorillonite (1.11 mmol/g) > MOCM (0.68 mmol/g) > IOCM (0.62 mmol/g). In the bi-solute sorptions, the sorbed amount of one solute decreased due to the presence of the other competing metal ion. Langmuir model parameters for single-solute (q mL and b L) and bi-solute (
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$q_{\text{mL}}^{*}$$ \end{document}
and
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$b_{\text{L}}^{ *}$$ \end{document}
) sorptions were compared to analyze the effect of competition between the metal ions. The competitive Langmuir (R 2 > 0.81) and P-factor (R 2 > 0.82) models predicted the bi-solute competitive sorption data well but not the SRS model (0.003 < R 2 < 0.97).
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Abstract  

The nucleus23Na has been investigated by studying the primary γ-rays emitted from 53 keV neutron capture in it using a high resolution and high efficiency (100%) HPGe detector and NaI(T1) detector for anti-Compton. 24 primary γ-rays were placed in the24Na, in which 3 primary γ-rays were new ones from a (n, γ) reaction, and reported for the first time. In order to obtain an exact energy calibration within 7 MeV,56Fe(n,γ)57Fe reaction was used at thermal neutron energy. Intensity calibration was obtained from the27Al(p,γ)28Si reaction atE p=2046 keV. The neutron binding energy of24Na was determined to be 6959.75 keV.

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Abstract  

Separation of lithium isotope by NTOE compound was carried out with 0.01M HCl solution. The ion exchange capacity of NTOE was 0.8 meq/g. The separation factor, α=(7Li/6Li) solid (7Li/6Li) liquid was 1.0242 by the elution chromatography. The lighter isotope,6Li was concentrated in the liquid phase, while the heavior isotope,7Li was enriched in the solid phase.

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Abstract  

Recovered salt can be reused in the electrorefining process and the final removed salt from uranium (U) deposits can be fed into a following U casting process to prepare ingot. Therefore, salt distillation process is very important to increase the throughput of the salt separation system due to the high U content of spent nuclear fuel and high salt fraction of U dendrites. Yields on salt recovered by a batch type vacuum distiller transfer device were processed for obtaining pure eutectic salt and U. In this study, the influence of the various temperature slopes of each zones on salt evaporation and recovery rate are discussed. From the experimental results, the optimal temperature of each zones appear at the Top Zone and Zone 1 is 850 °C, Zone 2 is 650 °C and Zone 3 is 600 °C, respectively. In these conditions, the complete evaporation of pure salt in 1.4 h occurred and the amount of recovered salt was about 99 wt%. The adhered salt in U deposits was separated by a temperature slope zone of salt distillation equipment. From the experimental results using U deposits, the amount of salt evaporation was achieved more than 99 wt% and the salt evaporation rate was about 1.16 g/min. Also, the mount of recovered salt was about 99.5 wt%.

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Summary  

Electrochemical behavior of the reduction of uranium oxide was studied in a LiCl-Li2O molten salt system with an integrated cathode assembly. The mechanism for the electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide was studied through cyclic voltammetry. By means of a chronopotentiometry, the effects of the thickness of the uranium oxide, the thickness of the MgO membrane and the material of the conductor of an integrated cathode assembly on the overpotential of the cathode were investigated. From the voltamograms, the reduction potential of the uranium oxide and Li2O was obtained and the two mechanisms of the electrolytic reduction were considered with regard to the applied cathode potential. From the chronopotentiograms, the exchange current, the transfer coefficient and the maximum allowable current based on the Tafel behavior were obtained with regard to the thickness of the uranium oxide, and of the MgO membrane and the material of the conductor of an integrated cathode assembly.

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Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis
Authors:
Saet Byul Kim
,
Mi Ran Lee
,
Eun Duck Park
,
Sang Min Lee
,
HyoKyu Lee
,
Ki Hyun Park
, and
Myung-June Park

Abstract

A kinetic model of the homogeneous conversion of d-xylose in high temperature water (HTW) was developed. Experimental testing evaluated the effects of operating conditions on xylose conversion and furfural selectivity, with furfural yields of up to 60% observed without the use of acid catalysts. The reaction order for the decomposition of d-xylose was assumed to be above two, while the conversion of d-xylose to furfural and the degradation of furfural were first order reactions. Estimated kinetic parameters were within the range of values reported in the literature. The activation energy of furfural production showed that the ionization rate was high enough for HTW to replace acid catalysts. Simulated results from this model were in good agreement with experimental data, allowing the model to aid reactor design for the maximization of productivity.

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Thelohanellus kitauei was isolated from the koi Cyprinus carpio haematopterus, and the 18S rRNA gene of T. kitauei was amplified by optimised nested-PCR. The PCR product was sequenced and compared with other 18S rRNA genes of Thelohanellus species to investigate the relationships between their host specificities and infection sites. Based on the 18S rRNA sequences, T. kitauei is most closely related to T. hovorkai (which can infect the intestine). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that T. kitauei was clustered with other Thelohanellus spp. infecting Cyprininae. The present study suggests that the infection site and the host specificity (subfamily level) are reflected in the genetic relationships among Thelohanellus species.

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Abstract  

The loss of trace elements during NAA of five liquid reagents, hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide and deioniyed water, has been investigated using 17 radioactive tracers of46Sc,51Cr,54Mn,59Fe,60Co,645Zn,75Se,85Sr,95Zr,113Sn,124Sb,151Eu,160Yb,177Lu,182Ta,233Pa. Two kinds of container quartz and polyethylene have been used for irradiation and also for preconcentration of the reagents. The containers were cleaned before use by washing-leaching-rinsing procedure. The reagents were preconcentrated by subboiling evaporation under the infrared lamp in clean bench. The loss of trace elements has been revealed to be severer for the reagents of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid in the container of quartz than for the other cases, while that is lowest for hydrogen peroxide.

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Abstract  

For the separation of rare-earth elements from steel, with a cation exchange resin, separation experiments were performed on NIST reference materials of SRM-363 and SRM-364. Iron, Na, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, As, Mo, Sb and W were separated in 2M hydrochloric acid, five rare-earth elements, La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm and three other elements, Hf, Zr and Ba were separated using 8M nitric acid. Each element was determined by a single comparator method using two monitors, gold and cobalt.

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