Authors:Maja Velhner, Darko Mitevski, Dubravka Potkonjak, Dragica Stojanović, Mira Kovačević, Tamaš Petrović and Sanja Aleksić-Kovačević
The biological properties of an infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus isolated from bursas collected during an outbreak in a village chicken flock in Macedonia are described. The mortality rate was 50%. Two viruses coexisted in the bursas of infected chickens (IBDVwt and IBDVtc). The virus termed IBDVtc grows on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells from the first passage. Specific pathogen free chickens inoculated with IBDVtc at passage level 4 did not develop any clinical signs of disease. Some discrete bleeding on the leg muscles was seen and the bursa of Fabricius revealed pathological lesions similar to those caused by classical strains. However, the bursa recovered quickly (bursa lesion score 2) by 14 days post infection (PI). We also found evidence of bursal repopulation by means of perinuclear antigen staining. Strong CD3 influx was evident at 4 days PI, and at 33 days PI the CD3+ cell finding was comparable to the control. The mean antibody titre was 9.2 log
at 14 days PI. The amino acid composition of VP2 in IBDVwt (222 Ala, 242 Ile, 253 Gln, 256 Ile, 279 Asp, 284 Ala, 294 Ile and 299 Ser) is described. The same sequence was found in IBDVtc, except for two point mutations, at Gln253→His and Ala284→Thr. Such amino acid substitution is responsible for partial attenuation and the ability of the strain to replicate in cell culture. None of the commercial vaccine viruses has a similar arrangement of amino acids in the variable domain of IBDV. This strongly suggests that IBDVtc originates from a very virulent strain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a concomitant infection of chickens with highly pathogenic IBDV and its mutant counterpart.
Authors:Zsolt Becskei, Sanja Aleksić-Kovačević, Miklós Rusvai, Gyula Balka, Csaba Jakab, Tamaš Petrović and Milijana Knežević
The lymphatic organs of 50 pigs from a total of eight farms located at different sites in the epizootiological region of North Bačka County were studied to obtain data on the prevalence of circoviral infections in Serbia. All of the pigs examined had clinical signs suggestive of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). All pigs underwent necropsy and tissue samples were taken for histopathological, immunohistochemical (IHC) and PCR analysis. The presence of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) was established by PCR analysis in the organs of the pigs tested. The most frequent histopathological lesions of lymphoid tissue linked with the presence of positive immunostaining for PCV2 Cap antigen confirmed the existence of PMWS in all farms tested in North Bačka County. Using PCR, histopathological and IHC techniques, the presence of PMWS was proved in the Republic of Serbia. During necropsy, generalised enlargement of the lymph nodes was evident. The most common histopathological finding was lymphocyte depletion in the follicular and perifollicular areas of lymph nodes. Infiltration by macrophages was also recorded. By IHC analysis, the cytoplasm of macrophages was shown to contain a large amount of the ORF2-coded Cap antigen of PCV2. Lymphocyte depletion and large numbers of macrophages were recorded in the tonsils, spleen, intestinal lymphatic tissue, Peyer’s patches and ileocaecal valve. The presence of typical granulomatous lesions with multinuclear giant cells (MGCs) was also recorded in the lymphatic tissue. Cap antigen was shown to be present in macrophages and less often in lymphocytes.
Authors:Nedjeljko Karabasil, Nikola Čobanović, Ivana Vučićević, Silvana Stajković, Zsolt Becskei, Petra Forgách and Sanja Aleksić-Kovačević
The aim of this study was to determine the association of lung lesions with carcass and meat quality traits in slaughter pigs and to describe the main morphological features associated with lung lesions. Macroscopic lesions on the lungs were detected in 67.09% of a total of 79 pigs examined. Histopathological examination revealed that acute and chronic interstitial pneumonia represented the commonest changes, detected in 26.67% and 33.33% of the cases, respectively. Bronchopneumonia was found in 33.33% of the cases. By immunohistochemical examination, 26.67% of the lungs showed the presence of severe peribronchiolar and perialveolar infiltration composed predominantly of CD3+ T lymphocytes, which finding may be indicative of viral pneumonia. Regarding the production traits, it was confirmed that pigs with severe lung lesions had the lowest liveweight, hot carcass weight and meatiness, the highest pH value 45 min after slaughtering (pH45) and the highest incidence of dark, firm, dry (DFD) and pale, soft, exudative (PSE) meat. The presence of lung lesions significantly downgraded carcass value and caused a significant deterioration in pork quality.
Authors:Sanja Aleksić-Kovačević, József Özvegy, Nikola Krstić, Miklós Rusvai, Csaba Jakab, Zoran Stanimirović and Zsolt Becskei
Water pollution is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of plastron, carapace and skin diseases of turtles. In this study, a total of 150 European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) of different age and both sexes, originating from natural habitats in Serbia, were examined for morphological changes of the skin, plastron, carapace and skeletal system. The turtles were taken out from their natural habitats in Lake Ludas, Lake Palic and Lake Tresetiste. After artificial hibernation, they were subjected to detailed examination, sampled and treated, and finally returned into their natural habitat. Biopsies from the skin and shell were subjected to histopathological examination and microbiological analysis. X-ray scanning was also performed to detect changes in the skeletal system. Macroscopic changes of the skin, most frequently degenerative, inflammatory or neoplastic diseases, were diagnosed in 49.33% of the turtles examined. Dermatitis of different origin and form was the most prominent histopathological finding (28.00%). In the plastron, inflammatory and degenerative processes were frequently found. Osteopathy and mechanical injuries were the dominant findings. Macroscopic changes of the plastron, carapace and skeletal system were diagnosed in 67.33% of the turtles examined. Using X-ray scanning, generalised osteopathy, anomalies and malformations of different aetiology were also diagnosed on the tail and legs. Microbiological examinations showed the presence of a variety of bacterial and fungal agents, either primary pathogens or potential polluters, which invaded the skin and shell, or were present in cloacal swab samples. Bacterial infection was diagnosed in 76.66% of the turtles, first of all in those with skin and shell necrosis. Mycoses were diagnosed in 33.33% of the animals.