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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Sara Davoudabadi, Hossein Goudarzi, Mehdi Goudarzi, Abdollah Ardebili, Ebrahim Faghihloo, Javad Yasbolaghi Sharahi, and Ali Hashemi

Abstract

In this study, we focused on the emergence of extensively drug-resistant (XDR), pandrug-resistant (PDR), and hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) in Iran. During 2018 to 2020 a total of 52 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from different clinical specimens. The hvKP isolates were identified by PCR amplification of virulence and capsular serotype-specific genes. Hypermucoviscous K. pneumoniae (hmKP) were identified by string test. Carbapenem-resistant hvKP (CR-hvKP), multidrug-resistant hvKP (MDR-hvKP), extensively drug-resistant hvKP (XDR-hvKP), and pandrug-resistant hvKP (PDR-hvKP) were determined by disc diffusion method, Carba-NP test and PCR method. XDR-hvKP isolates were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Among all K. pneumoniae isolates 14 (26.9%) were identified as hvKP and 78.6% (11/14) of them were hmKP however, none of the classic K. pneumoniae (cKP) isolates were hmKP. The predominant capsular serotype of hvKP was K2 (42.85%) followed by K1 (35.71%). The prevalence of MDR-hvKP, XDR-hvKP and PDR-hvKP isolates were 6 (42.9%), 5 (35.7%) and 1 (7.1%), respectively. ESBL production was found in 85.7% of hvKP isolates and most of them carried bla TEM gene (78.6%) and 6 isolates (42.9%) were CR-hvKP. Among hvKP isolates, 1 (7.1%), 2 (14.3%), 3 (21.4%), 8 (28.6%), and 11 (78.6%) carried bla NDM-6, bla OXA-48, bla CTX-M, bla SHV, and bla TEM genes, respectively. According to MLST analysis, 2, 1, 1, and 1 XDR-hvKP isolates belonged to ST15, ST377, ST442, and ST147, respectively. The occurrence of such isolates is deeply concerning due to the combination of hypervirulence and extensively drug-resistance or pandrug-resistance.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Elham Abbasi, Hossein Goudarzi, Ali Hashemi, Alireza Salimi Chirani, Abdollah Ardebili, Mehdi Goudarzi, Javad Yasbolaghi Sharahi, Sara Davoudabadi, Ghazaleh Talebi, and Narjes Bostanghadiri

Abstract

A major challenge in the treatment of infections has been the rise of extensively drug resistance (XDR) and multidrug resistance (MDR) in Acinetobacter baumannii. The goals of this study were to determine the pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility, bla OXA and carO genes among burn-isolated A. baumannii strains. In this study, 100 A. baumannii strains were isolated from burn patients and their susceptibilities to different antibiotics were determined using disc diffusion testing and broth microdilution. Presence of carO gene and OXA-type carbapenemase genes was tested by PCR and sequencing. SDS-PAGE was done to survey CarO porin and the expression level of carO gene was evaluated by Real-Time PCR. A high rate of resistance to meropenem (98%), imipenem (98%) and doripenem (98%) was detected. All tested A. baumannii strains were susceptible to colistin. The results indicated that 84.9% were XDR and 97.9% of strains were MDR. In addition, all strains bore bla OXA-51 like and bla OXA-23 like and carO genes. Nonetheless, bla OXA-58 like and bla OXA-24 like genes were harbored by 0 percent and 76 percent of strains, respectively. The relative expression levels of the carO gene ranged from 0.06 to 35.01 fold lower than that of carbapenem-susceptible A. baumannii ATCC19606 and SDS – PAGE analysis of the outer membrane protein showed that all 100 isolates produced CarO. The results of current study revealed prevalence of bla OXA genes and changes in carO gene expression in carbapenem resistant A.baumannii.

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