The aim of the present study was to investigate, for the first time, the diversity of the genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AME) and their association with class 1 integrons in Iranian Acinetobacter baumannii strains.A total of 100 multidrug resistant A. baumannii, isolated from eight distinct hospitals in Tehran, were enrolled in this study. Susceptibility of these isolates to antimicrobial agents including gentamicin and amikacin was determined by E-test. Aminoglycoside resistant isolates were then tested by PCR for AME genes, including aphA6, aacC1, aacC2, aacA4, aadB, aadA1, classes 1 integron, 5′-CS-3′ and typed by RAPD PCR.The rate of resistance to imipenem, meropenem, gentamicin and amikacin were 39%, 39%, 38% and 32%, respectively. Intermediate resistance phenotype to gentamicin and amikacin was observed in 2% and 5% of all the isolates, respectively. After aph6 with 90% (n = 36/40), aadA1, aacC1 and aadB with 82.5% (n = 33/40), 65% (n = 26/40) and 20% (n = 8/40) were the most prevalent AME genes among aminoglycosides resistant A. baumannii isolates. A combination of two to four different resistance genes was observed in 39 of 40 strains (97.5%), with a total of 7 different combinations. PCR of integrase genes revealed that AME gene was associated with 67% of class 1 integrons. RAPD analysis showed three predominant genotypes A (n = 20), B (n = 10) and 10 unrelated genotypes.The occurrence of identical resistance genes, gene combinations and class 1 integrons associated with these genes in clonally distinct strains indicates that horizontal gene transfer plays a major role in the dissemination of aminoglycoside resistance in A. baumannii.
The rapid identification of relevant bacterial pathogens is of utmost importance in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to test a rapid identification technique for
strains from Tehran Hospitals and to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles of the isolates. A hundred strains of
spp. grown from clinical specimens were identified as
by conventional methods. Using PCR a
-like gene was detected in all
isolates but not in other species of acinetobacter. More than half of the isolates proved resistant to a variety of antibiotics by the disk diffusion technique. The rate of resistance to gentamicin, imipenem, ampicillin-sulbactam and amikacin was determined to be 45%, 53%, 62% and 62%, respectively. Moreover, most isolates (more than 90%) showed resistance to cephalosporins. This study shows that the demonstration of the
gene is a reliable and rapid way for the presumptive identification of
and reveals that the rate of antibiotic resistance is high in Iranian
isolates to a variety of antibiotics.