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Abstract  

Tritium and 14C concentration in hot spring water in Korea were determined. Tritium in the most hot spring samples could not detected and concentration range was <0.5–1.31 TU. And 14C contents were ranged 1.7–78.6 pMC. From the 3H and 14C analysis, we found some hot springs are mixed with recent groundwater and hot spring water ages were estimated from 1,940 to 32,800 years. And also, 226Ra and 228Ra were determined simultaneously in hot spring water, and some other radionuclides were also analyzed. Content distribution of 222Rn was 50–3,760 pCi/L, 226Ra was <0.003–0.15 Bq/L and 228Ra was below the detection limit.

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Balancing between prejudice and fact for Gaming Disorder: Does the existence of alcohol use disorder stigmatize healthy drinkers or impede scientific research?

Commentary on “Scholars’ open debate paper on the World Health Organization ICD-11 Gaming Disorder proposal”

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Seung-Yup Lee
,
Hyekyung Choo
, and
Hae Kook Lee

The inclusion of Gaming Disorder (GD) criteria in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) beta draft was recently criticized, and an argument was made for its removal to “avoid a waste of public resources.” However, these misleading statements are believed to be based on under estimation of this ever-growing problem. Such claims may endanger public health and the psychosocial well-being of affected individuals. Thus, the seriousness of the problem was briefly emphasized in our response paper. We provided an overview of how debates of this kind were developed in our region. In addition, we addressed the arguments made on research and children’s rights. The accusation that GD exerts negative impacts on children’s freedom and stigmatizes healthy gamers may arise from a false belief that this new digital media is benign or not addictive. Such statements could be true in some, but not all, cases. Unwillingness to recognize the addictive potential of gaming, as well as insistence on treating GD simply as an individual problem, are reminiscent of the era in which alcoholism was viewed as a personality problem. These dangerous views place affected individuals at greater health risk and further stigmatize them. Formalization of the disorder is also expected to help in standardization of research and treatment in the field. The inclusion of GD in the upcoming ICD-11 is a responsible step in the right direction.

Open access

Two male harbour seals (Phoca vitulina; 33 and 35 years old, respectively), housed since 2002 at a zoo for exhibition purposes, developed severe, multifocal and diffuse skin lesions. Skin scrapings and microscopy for parasites as well as pure cultures for bacteria and dermatophytes were carried out to identify the aetiological agent. Skin scrapings showed that lesions appearing on the seals were caused by an infestation of Demodex mites, which is uncommon in marine mammals, and were not due to other causative agents (parasites, bacteria or dermatophytes). Treatment with amitraz (0.01%) once a week for three weeks and with ampicillin (10 mg/kg SID per os) for six days eliminated the mites and resolved the clinical signs of demodectic mange in the harbour seals. The purpose of this report is to describe the successful treatment of naturally acquired demodectic mange with amitraz in harbour seals.

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Abstract

It has been shown that gintonin, isolated from Panax ginseng, can promote rapid corneal wound healing. We aimed to elucidate the underlying mechanism and investigated whether gintonin affects the concentration of the extracellular matrix remodelling factor matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in tears during rabbit corneal wound healing in vivo. Twelve eyes (six rabbits) were divided equally into three groups. All eyes underwent corneal de-epithelialisation. The control group received Tearin Free sodium hyaluronate 0.1%, the solcoseryl group received solcoseryl-120 concentrate, and the gintonin group received 2.5 mg gintonin in sodium hyaluronate 0.1%. All preparations were administered for 5 days and the concentration of MMP-9 was measured in tears via ELISA on days 0, 1, and 5. MMP-9 concentrations in all groups were increased at day 1 and reduced at day 5. Of note, we found a significant change over the time frame for the gintonin group (P < 0.05) but not for the control or solcoseryl groups (P > 0.05) Moreover, increased MMP-9 levels between days 0 and 1, and their reduction between days 1 and 5, were significant in the gintonin group compared to those in the other groups (P < 0.05); however, and once more, these changes were not significant between the control and solcoseryl groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, gintonin increases the concentration of MMP-9 rapidly within a day of injury, and decreasing it thereafter.

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Besnoitia besnoiti is an obligate intracellular parasite that is transmitted by direct contact or via mechanical transmission by flies as vectors. Besnoitiosis causes economic losses in the cattle industry and is regarded as a re-emerging disease in Europe. This study evaluated the seroprevalence of B. besnoiti in Korean cattle using a commercial ELISA kit. Among 558 serum samples, 19 (3.4%) tested seropositive for B. besnoiti. The statistically significant risk factors included age (≥ 2 years), sex (castrated males), and region (lower latitudes) (P < 0.05). The overall seroprevalence suggested a wide distribution of B. besnoiti infection in cattle reared in Korea. Thus, the practice of intensive cattle husbandry and the regionally different seroprevalence of B. besnoiti infection in cattle in Korea warrant routine monitoring and vector control to reduce economical losses due to bovine besnoitiosis in the country.

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Abstract  

Performance tests of silver ion-exchanged zeolite (AgX) adsorbent for the control of radioiodine gas generated from a high-temperature process were carried out using both non-radioactive and a radioactive methyl iodide tracers. From the identification of SEM-EDAX analysis, an experimental result of silver ion-exchanged ratio containing 10-30 wt% of Ag was fit to that calculated by the weight increment, and it was confirmed that the silver was uniformly distributed inside the pores of the adsorbent. Demonstration test of AgX-10 adsorbent using radioactive methyl iodide tracer was performed. The removal efficiency of radioiodine with AgX-10 in the temperature ranges of 150 to 300 °C was in the ranges of 99.9% to 99.99%, except for 300 °C. The influence of the long-term weathering and the poisoning with NO2 gas (200 ppm) on adsorption capacity of AgX-10 was also analyzed. The removal efficiency of radioactive methyl iodide by AgX-10 weathered for 14 weeks was 99.95%. Long-term poisoning test showed that the adsorption efficiency of methyl iodide started to decrease after 10 weeks, and the removal efficiency of radioiodine by AgX-10, poisoned for 16 weeks, was 99% (DF=100).

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Acta Chromatographica
Authors:
Young Sang Kwon
,
Sung-Gil Choi
,
Seung-Min Lee
,
Jong-Hwan Kim
, and
Jong-Su Seo

The applicability of gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS) for determination of dioxins in soil was investigated. The analytical method was validated based on US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1613 and European Union (EU) Regulation No. 709/2014 for selectivity, linearity of sensitivity, and instrumental limits of quantification (iLOQs). Method development commenced with determination of retention times for 17 native polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and selection of characteristic ions from GC–MS/MS spectra. The linearity was measured using 1613 standard solutions (CS1–CS5) containing 0.5 to 200 ng/mL tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (TCDD/F) congeners, 2.5 to 1000 ng/mL pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (PeCDD/F) to heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (HpCDD/F) congeners, and 20 to 2000 ng/mL octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (OCDD/F) congeners. The correlation coefficient (R 2) values ranged between 0.9990 and 0.9999, and the iLOQ values ranged from 0.052 to 0.350 pg/μL for TCDD/F congeners, with a relative standard deviation of 2.7–9.6%. The entire analytical method was verified by analysis of certified reference materials (BCR-529 and BCR-530), and the recoveries were 71.79–103.87% and 81.50–103.12%, respectively. Thus, the GC–MS/MS system provides an alternative to GC–high-resolution MS for the simultaneous determination of TCDD/F congeners in soil.

Open access
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
Dong-Yong Chung
,
Heui-Seung Seo
,
Jae-Won Lee
,
Han-Beom Yang
,
Eil-Hee Lee
, and
Kwang-Wook Kim

Abstract  

A feasibility and basic study to find a possibility to develop such a process for recovering U alone from spent fuel by using the methods of an oxidative leaching and a precipitation of U in high alkaline carbonate media was newly suggested with the characteristics of a highly enhanced proliferation-resistance and more environmental friendliness. This study has focused on the examination of an oxidative leaching of uranium from SIMFUEL powders contained 16 elements (U, Ce, Gd, La, Nd, Pr, Sm, Eu, Y, Mo, Pd, Ru, Zr, Ba, Sr, and Te) using a Na2CO3 solution with hydrogen peroxide. U3O8 was dissolved more rapidly than UO2 in a carbonate solution. However, in the presence of H2O2, we can find out that the leaching rates of the reduced SIMFUEL powder are faster than the oxidized SIMFUEL powder. In carbonate solutions with hydrogen peroxide, uranium oxides were dissolved in the form of uranyl peroxo-carbonato complexes. UO2(O2) x (CO3) y 2−2x−2y , where x/y has 1/2, 2/1.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Orsolya Király
,
Mark D. Griffiths
,
Daniel L. King
,
Hae-Kook Lee
,
Seung-Yup Lee
,
Fanni Bányai
,
Ágnes Zsila
,
Zsofia K. Takacs
, and
Zsolt Demetrovics

Background and aims

Empirical research into problematic video game playing suggests that overuse might cause functional and psychological impairments for a minority of gamers. Therefore, the need for regulation in the case of video games (whether governmental or self-imposed) has arisen but has only been implemented in a few countries around the world, and predominantly in Asia. This paper provides a systematic review of current and potential policies addressing problematic gaming.

Methods

After conducting a systematic search in the areas of prevention, treatment, and policy measures relating to problematic Internet and video game use, papers were selected that targeted problematic gaming policies (N = 12; six in English and six in Korean). These papers served as the basis of this review.

Results

Policies were classified into three major groups: (i) policy measures limiting availability of video games (e.g., shutdown policy, fatigue system, and parental controls), (ii) measures aiming to reduce risk and harm (e.g., warning messages), and (iii) measures taken to provide help services for gamers. Beyond the attempt to classify the current and potential policy measures, the authors also tried to evaluate their efficiency theoretically and (if data were available) empirically.

Discussion and conclusions

Overall, it appears that although several steps have been taken to address problematic video game playing, most of these steps were not as effective as expected, or had not been evaluated empirically for efficacy. The reason for this may lie in the fact that the policies outlined only addressed or influenced specific aspects of the problem instead of using a more integrative approach.

Open access

Objectives

Previous studies have reported an association between Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and depression, but the directionality of the relationship remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the reciprocal relationship between level of depressive symptoms and IGD among children in a longitudinal study.

Methods

Research panels for this study consisted of 366 elementary-school students in the iCURE study. All participants were current Internet users, so they could be considered an at-risk population for IGD. Self-reported severity of IGD features and level of depression were assessed by the Internet Game Use-Elicited Symptom Screen and Children’s Depression Inventory, respectively. Follow-up assessment was completed after 12 months. We fitted cross-lagged structural equation models to investigate the association between the two variables at two time points contemporaneously.

Results

The cross-lagged analysis revealed that level of depression at baseline significantly predicted severity of IGD features at the 12-month follow-up (β = 0.15, p = .003). Severity of IGD features at baseline also significantly predicted level of depression at the 12-month follow-up (β = 0.11, p = .018), controlling for possible confounding factors.

Conclusions

The cross-lagged path analysis indicates a reciprocal relationship between severity of IGD features and level of depressive symptoms. Understanding the reciprocal relationship between depressive symptoms and severity of IGD features can assist in interventions to prevent both conditions. These findings provide theoretical support for prevention and remediation plans for IGD and depressive symptoms among children.

Open access