Authors:Seung-Yup Lee, Hyekyung Choo, and Hae Kook Lee
The inclusion of Gaming Disorder (GD) criteria in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) beta draft was recently criticized, and an argument was made for its removal to “avoid a waste of public resources.” However, these misleading statements are believed to be based on under estimation of this ever-growing problem. Such claims may endanger public health and the psychosocial well-being of affected individuals. Thus, the seriousness of the problem was briefly emphasized in our response paper. We provided an overview of how debates of this kind were developed in our region. In addition, we addressed the arguments made on research and children’s rights. The accusation that GD exerts negative impacts on children’s freedom and stigmatizes healthy gamers may arise from a false belief that this new digital media is benign or not addictive. Such statements could be true in some, but not all, cases. Unwillingness to recognize the addictive potential of gaming, as well as insistence on treating GD simply as an individual problem, are reminiscent of the era in which alcoholism was viewed as a personality problem. These dangerous views place affected individuals at greater health risk and further stigmatize them. Formalization of the disorder is also expected to help in standardization of research and treatment in the field. The inclusion of GD in the upcoming ICD-11 is a responsible step in the right direction.
Authors:Hyunsuk Jeong, Hyeon Woo Yim, Seung-Yup Lee, Hae Kook Lee, Marc N. Potenza, Sun-Jin Jo, and Hye Jung Son
Previous studies have reported an association between Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and depression, but the directionality of the relationship remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the reciprocal relationship between level of depressive symptoms and IGD among children in a longitudinal study.
Research panels for this study consisted of 366 elementary-school students in the iCURE study. All participants were current Internet users, so they could be considered an at-risk population for IGD. Self-reported severity of IGD features and level of depression were assessed by the Internet Game Use-Elicited Symptom Screen and Children’s Depression Inventory, respectively. Follow-up assessment was completed after 12 months. We fitted cross-lagged structural equation models to investigate the association between the two variables at two time points contemporaneously.
The cross-lagged analysis revealed that level of depression at baseline significantly predicted severity of IGD features at the 12-month follow-up (β = 0.15, p = .003). Severity of IGD features at baseline also significantly predicted level of depression at the 12-month follow-up (β = 0.11, p = .018), controlling for possible confounding factors.
The cross-lagged path analysis indicates a reciprocal relationship between severity of IGD features and level of depressive symptoms. Understanding the reciprocal relationship between depressive symptoms and severity of IGD features can assist in interventions to prevent both conditions. These findings provide theoretical support for prevention and remediation plans for IGD and depressive symptoms among children.
Authors:Seung-Yup Lee, Donghwan Lee, Cho Rong Nam, Da Yea Kim, Sera Park, Jun-Gun Kwon, Yong-Sil Kweon, Youngjo Lee, Dai Jin Kim, and Jung-Seok Choi
Background and objectives
The ubiquitous Internet connections by smartphones weakened the traditional boundaries between computers and mobile phones. We sought to explore whether smartphone-related problems differ from those of computer use according to gender using latent class analysis (LCA).
After informed consents, 555 Korean middle-school students completed surveys on gaming, Internet use, and smartphone usage patterns. They also completed various psychosocial instruments. LCA was performed for the whole group and by gender. In addition to ANOVA and χ2 tests, post-hoc tests were conducted to examine differences among the LCA subgroups.
In the whole group (n = 555), four subtypes were identified: dual-problem users (49.5%), problematic Internet users (7.7%), problematic smartphone users (32.1%), and “healthy” users (10.6%). Dual-problem users scored highest for addictive behaviors and other psychopathologies. The gender-stratified LCA revealed three subtypes for each gender. With dual-problem and healthy subgroup as common, problematic Internet subgroup was classified in the males, whereas problematic smartphone subgroup was classified in the females in the gender-stratified LCA. Thus, distinct patterns were observed according to gender with higher proportion of dual-problem present in males. While gaming was associated with problematic Internet use in males, aggression and impulsivity demonstrated associations with problematic smartphone use in females.
An increase in the number of digital media-related problems was associated with worse outcomes in various psychosocial scales. Gaming may play a crucial role in males solely displaying Internet-related problems. The heightened impulsivity and aggression seen in our female problematic smartphone users requires further research.
Authors:Orsolya Király, Mark D. Griffiths, Daniel L. King, Hae-Kook Lee, Seung-Yup Lee, Fanni Bányai, Ágnes Zsila, Zsofia K. Takacs, and Zsolt Demetrovics
Background and aims
Empirical research into problematic video game playing suggests that overuse might cause functional and psychological impairments for a minority of gamers. Therefore, the need for regulation in the case of video games (whether governmental or self-imposed) has arisen but has only been implemented in a few countries around the world, and predominantly in Asia. This paper provides a systematic review of current and potential policies addressing problematic gaming.
After conducting a systematic search in the areas of prevention, treatment, and policy measures relating to problematic Internet and video game use, papers were selected that targeted problematic gaming policies (N = 12; six in English and six in Korean). These papers served as the basis of this review.
Policies were classified into three major groups: (i) policy measures limiting availability of video games (e.g., shutdown policy, fatigue system, and parental controls), (ii) measures aiming to reduce risk and harm (e.g., warning messages), and (iii) measures taken to provide help services for gamers. Beyond the attempt to classify the current and potential policy measures, the authors also tried to evaluate their efficiency theoretically and (if data were available) empirically.
Discussion and conclusions
Overall, it appears that although several steps have been taken to address problematic video game playing, most of these steps were not as effective as expected, or had not been evaluated empirically for efficacy. The reason for this may lie in the fact that the policies outlined only addressed or influenced specific aspects of the problem instead of using a more integrative approach.
Authors:Hyunsuk Jeong, Hyeon Woo Yim, Seung-Yup Lee, Hae Kook Lee, Marc N. Potenza, Sun-Jin Jo, Hye Jung Son, and Gyeogmin Kim
We examined serial mediating roles of low self-control and aggression in explaining relationships between levels of inattention and hyperactivity problems (IHPs) and severity of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) features when exposed to online games among adolescents without Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) stratified by gender using three-wave longitudinal study.
The sample comprised a total of 1,732 family dyads from a study that was conducted among seventh graders without diagnoses of ADHD at baseline. Levels of IHPs were assessed by the parent reported Korean version of the ADHD rating scale at baseline (wave1). Severity of IGD features was assessed by the Internet Game Use-Elicited Symptom Screen (IGUESS) at wave3. Both levels of self-control (wave1) and aggression (wave2) were assessed by self-report. The mediating role of low self-control and aggression in the relationships between level of IHPs and severity of IGD were evaluated using serial mediation analysis separately for each gender.
Levels of IHPs were related directly to severity of IGD features in both genders. The indirect effects via low self-control were also significant in both genders, however, the indirect effects via aggression was significant only in women. The serial mediation effect via low self-control and aggression between levels of IHPs and IGD features was significant in both genders (men, coefficient:0.009, 95%CI 0.005–0.019; women, coefficient:0.010, 95%CI:0.005–0.026).
We revealed a possible mechanism underlying a serial mediation chain from low self-control to aggression explaining the effects of IHPs on severity of IGD features. However, this conclusion should be taken with a caution, because the effect sizes were very low.
Authors:Hyunsuk Jeong, Hyeon Woo Yim, Seung-Yup Lee, Hae Kook Lee, Marc N. Potenza, and Misun Park
Background and aims
Parental depressive symptoms may aggravate the effects of children’s emotional problems on risks for Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Here we examined the joint effects of children’s emotional problems and parents’ depressive symptoms on the incidence of IGD.
A large prospective, population-based cohort tested potential interactions between children’s emotional problems, parents’ depressive symptoms, and incidence of high risk of IGD (HRIGD). Family dyads (n=2,031) that included children who were non-HRIGD at baseline completed assessments of childhood and parental affective symptomatology. HRIGD was assessed at baseline and 12 months. Relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) estimated the magnitudes of interactions.
In terms of risk for the development of IGD, parental depression was 1.8 times greater, children’s emotional problems were 2.9 times greater, and both risk factors together were 6.1 times greater than the background risk, with the last two findings reaching statistical significance. The expected risk for the development of HRIGD was RR=3.7.
Discussion and conclusions
Children’s emotional problems demonstrated a particularly strong relationship with HRIGD. Joint effects of children’s emotional problems and depressive symptoms in parents on the incidence of HRIGD were stronger than the sum of the independent effects of each factor. The findings suggest that combining interventions for the treatment of children’s emotional problems and parents’ depressive symptoms may have extra risk reduction effects on preventing IGD in children and adolescents.
Authors:Yeong Seon Jo, Soo Young Bhang, Jung-Seok Choi, Hae Kook Lee, Seung Yup Lee, and Yong-Sil Kweon
Background and aim
Whereas many studies on Internet gaming disorder (IGD) have used self-report questionnaires, only a few have adopted clinical interviews and samples. The current study aimed at using data from face-to-face diagnostic interviews, based on the criteria for IGD in the DSM-5, to determine the Internet, gaming, and smartphone usage patterns of children and adolescents.
A latent class analysis was conducted using data collected through diagnostic interviews for Internet, gaming, and smartphone addiction with 190 participants (M = 13.14 years, SD = 2.46; 143 boys, 47 girls) who were part of a multicenter clinical cohort study.
Participants were classified into four groups: pleasure-seeking (Class 1), internal-use (Class 2), problematic-use (Class 3), and pathological-use (Class 4). The pleasure-seeking group (8.11%) showed low tendencies in general and proper control. The internal-use group (17.63%) showed significant increases in “cognitive salience” and “craving,” with strong internal desires. The problematic-use group (37.28%) had no “interference with role performance”; however, they displayed “difficulty regulating use” and “persistent use despite negative consequences,” with a slight functional impairment. The pathological-use group (36.98%) scored the highest on all these items, revealing a severe functional impairment. Compared to the other groups, the pathological-use group had the highest depression and daily stress levels and displayed the lowest levels of happiness.
This study provides basic data to elucidate Internet, gaming, and smartphone overuse patterns among children and adolescents, which could be used to develop differentiated intervention strategies for each group.