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  • Author or Editor: Shan Jiang x
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Abstract  

Developing the probability function to describe rank-size Zipfian phenomena, i.e., a form like P(R = r) c/r a (a>0) with a rank type random variable R, has been an important problem in scientometrics and informetrics. In this article a new rank-size distribution of Zipf"s law is presented and applied to an actual distribution of scientific productivities in Chinese universities.

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to evaluate and identify the value and explore the mechanisms of Angiogenic Factor with G-patch and FHA domains 1 (AGGF1) in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD).

Methods

Rats were separated into four different groups, namely sham, isoflurane, isoflurane + recombinant human Aggf1 (rh-Aggf1) (5 μg kg−1), and isoflurane + rh-Aggf1 (10 μg kg−1). qPCR and western blot assays were applied to detect the correlation between the expression of AGGF1 and isoflurane administration. Then, the Morris water maze (MWM) test was applied to evaluate the effect of AGGF1 on improving the POCD rats. Subsequently, TUNEL assay was applied and the cell apoptosis-related proteins were tested to reveal the anti-apoptotic effect of AGGF1 in POCD rats. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β were also detected by qPCR and ELISA to verify the anti-inflammatory effects of AGGF1 on POCD rats. Besides, the protein expression levels of PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB in each group were examined by western blot.

Results

In this study, the results revealed that isoflurane induced a decrease in AGGF1 expression in the hippocampus of aged rats. In addition, exogenous AGGF1 attenuated POCD in aged rats. Meanwhile, exogenous AGGF1 had anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects in POCD rats. Further research indicated that AGGF1 activated the PI3K/Akt pathway.

Conclusion

AGGF1 has neuroprotective effect against isoflurane-induced cognitive dysfunction in aged rats via activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.

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Abstract

Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. (ST) has been used as an aromatic exterior-releasing medicine in clinical practice for thousands of years in China. Previous researches have revealed both volatile oil (STVO) and aqueous extract (STAE) from ST showed significant pharmacological activities, such as anti-virus, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and immunoregulation. However, the influence between each other was still unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of three main flavonoids (luteoloside, apigetrin, and hesperidin) in STAE to illustrate the influence of STVO. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method was established to quantitatively analyze the three absorbed ingredients in the plasma of healthy rats. Biological samples were analyzed on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (3.0 mm × 150 mm, 3.5 μm) with gradient mobile phase (containing 0.2% formic acid and acetonitrile) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. All the analytes and quercitrin (IS) were investigated with an electrospray ionization source (ESI) using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) in negative ionization mode. In addition, this quantitative method showed good linearities (r ≥ 0.9995) and the lower limits of quantification were 0.590–1.19 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions ranged 3.47–10.45% and 4.29–11.28% for the three analytes. The mean extraction recoveries were in the range of 77.41–109.79% and the average matrix effects were within 83.41–112.67%. The validated method has been fully applied to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of the three flavonoid glycosides in rat plasma after oral administration of STAE and STAE+STVO. In comparison of luteoloside, apigetrin, and hesperidin in STAE group, it was found that different degree of increasing existed for the time to reach the maximum concentration (T max), elimination half-life time (T 1/2), the area under the concentration curves (AUC0→t and AUC0→∞) and the maximum concentrations (C max) in STAE+STVO group. As can be seen from above results, STVO could improve the absorption and bioavailability of the three analytes. These findings would provide some active and strong basis of safe clinical application for ST and further exploitation for STVO from the perspective of drug–drug interaction.

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