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A high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for the analysis of seven fructooligosaccharides (FOS, DP3-9) in Morinda officinalis How. (M. officinalis) and Arctium lappa Linn. (A. lappa) has been established. The chromatographic analysis was developed twice with a mobile phase consisting of n-butanol-isopropanol-water-acetic acid in volume composition 7:5:2:1 and obtained on silica gel 60 plate. The chromatograms were visualized with 1-naphthol-sulfuric acid reagent. Densitometric detection was performed in visible light at 585 nm for seven FOS. The analytical range was set as 131–1050 ng for FOS. Calibration was linear within the selected range (R 2 > 0.9901). The developed method was applied for the simultaneous determination of seven FOS in M. officinalis and A. lappa. The results indicated that the contents of FOS are variant in different M. officinalis samples, but constant in different A. lappa samples. This HPTLC method was found to be simple, stable, and reproducible. Hence, the developed HPTLC method would be an important tool for the quality control of FOS in medicinal plants.

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A simple, rapid, and effective high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been established for differentiating among the polysaccharides present in six traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), Cordyceps sinensis, Ganoderma lucidum, Astragalus memberanaceus, Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolii , and Panax notogiseng . Acid hydrolyzates of the polysaccharides were analyzed by HPTLC with two detection reagents, aniline-diphenylamine-phosphoric acid and ninhydrin, and scanning densitometry. The compounds were separated on silica gel plates with chloroform- n -butanol-methanol-acetic acid-water 4.5:12.5:5:1.5:1.5 ( v/v ) as mobile phase. Seven monosaccharides and two glucuronic acids were used as reference compounds. The results showed that hydrolysis of polysaccharides can release specific molecules present in the herbal species in addition to the monosaccharides present. This is useful for distinguishing the origins of the polysaccharides in Chinese medicines.

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Abstract  

The influence of the concentration of nitric, hydrochloric and phosphoric acids, petroleum sulfoxides (PSO), salting-out agent, kind of diluent and temperature on the distribution ratio of U(VI) and Th(IV) has been systematically studied. It is found that the extraction regularity of PSO is similar to that of TBP. The distribution ratio in phosphoric acid is lower, but it increases with the increase of hydrochloric acid concentration and reaches a high value. The U(VI) exhibits the maximum distribution ratio at 3–4 mol/l HNO3. The distribution ratio of U(VI) and Th(IV) increases rapidly in the presence of a salting out agent. The extracted compounds are determined to be UO2(NO3)22PSO and Th(NO3)42PSO. The extraction enthalpies of U(VI) and Th(IV) with PSO were also calculated.

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A double-development TLC method has been developed for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of hydrophilic and lipophilic constituents of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen). The optimized mobile phases dichloromethane-ethyl acetate-formic acid 22:24:10 (ν/ν) and petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-cyclohexane 25:11:14 (ν/ν) were used for the double development on nano-silica gel 60F254 plates. Their characteristic TLC profiles were observed under UV light at 254 and 365 nm and the bands were then revealed by reaction with 5% H2SO4 in EtOH. Quantification of twelve compounds was achieved by densitometry at 260 or 290 nm, with reference at 400 nm. Linearity was quite good (R 2 > 0.99) within the ranges tested. This method could be used for quality control of Danshen.

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JPC - Journal of Planar Chromatography - Modern TLC
Authors:
Kit-leong Cheong
,
Ding-tao Wu
,
De-jun Hu
,
Jing Zhao
,
Kai-yue Cao
,
Chun-feng Qiao
,
Bang-xing Han
, and
Shao-ping Li

Multiple species of ginseng are well-known Chinese medicinal herbs. The glycome of Panax species has various beneficial effects; however, studies related to their systematic profiling are very limited. Therefore, the systematic profiling of the glycome of Panax species was investigated in this study. The sugars from different locations and different species of Panax (Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium, and Panax notoginseng) were prepared by microwave-assisted extraction. Free mono- and oligo-saccharides were identified by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Furthermore, polysaccharides were compared and characterized by using saccharide mapping based on HPTLC analysis. The results showed that the mono- and oligo-saccharide in Panax species were similar, including the glucan and pectin type of polysaccharides in different locations and different species of Panax, respectively. The data are helpful to better understand the glycome of different species of Panax and may contribute to rational usage of polysaccharides from Panax species.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
Jian Wang
,
Dan Zhao
,
Jie Li
,
Guohong Wang
,
Lanping Hu
,
Jiaging Shao
,
Ping Gu
,
Hong Du
, and
Yangt Wang

Our studies explore the changes of blood corticosterone (CORT), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6 concentrations and the pituitary ACTH expression in rats after water floating in the presence or absence of following high-intensity exercise. The rats were randomly assigned into three groups. Group A served as control; Group B received 180 minutes water floating and psychological (fear) stimulation; Group C received the same treatment as Group B in addition and 120-minutes non-stop running. Compared to Group A, Group B showed a significant increase of IL-2 (19.91 ± 2.52 vs. 13.09 ± 3.13 ng/ml, P < 0.05), and IL-6 (0.18 ± 0.08 vs. 0.12 ± 0.05 ng/ml, P < 0.05); Group C demonstrated a significant increase of CORT (977.22 ± 207.36 ng/ml vs. 434.58 ± 110.45 ng/ml, P <0.01) and IL-1β (0.21 ± 0.04 vs. 0.16 ± 0.06 ng/ml, P < 0.05), IL-2 (20.29 ± 4.23 vs. 13.09 ± 3.13 ng/ml, P < 0.05), and IL-6 (0.19 ± 0.03 vs. 0.12 ± 0.05 ng/ml, P < 0.05) levels, and a significant decrease of ACTH (16.95 ± 5.46 vs. 22.96 ± 7.32 pg/ml, P = 0.03). Immunohistochemical staining showed the decreased number of pituitary ACTH-positive cells in both Groups B and C (P < 0.05) as compared to Group A. These results have lead us to believe that acute psychological stress can activate the pituitary-adrenal axis and lead to elevation of serum IL-2, IL-6 concentrations. Combined with high-intensity exercise, it can result in the increase of serum CORT, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 levels, and the suppression of ACTH.

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