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Background and aims

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) was proposed in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of American Psychiatric Association as an area warranting more research attention. High prevalence of excessive Internet game use and related addictions has been reported in China, especially among youth; however, there is a lack of psychometrically and theoretically sound instruments for assessing IGD in the Chinese language.

Methods

This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGD-20 Test) among Chinese middle school (n = 569; M age = 13.34; 46.2% females) and university students (n = 523; M age = 20.12; 48.4% females) samples in Beijing, China. All participants voluntarily completed an anonymous questionnaire.

Results

Confirmatory factor analysis results showed that the Chinese version of the IGD-20 Test had five factors (i.e., salience-tolerance, mood modification, withdrawal, conflict, and relapse). Measurement invariance was confirmed across the two samples. The test score was positively associated with the modified Young’s Internet Addiction Test for gaming addiction. Concurrent validation was further demonstrated by the IGD-20 Test’s positive correlation with weekly gameplay and depression symptoms. The latent profile analysis showed four different gamer classes (i.e., regular gamers, low-risk engaged gamers, high-risk engaged gamers, and probable disordered gamers), with the estimated prevalence of 2.1% of the last group.

Discussion and conclusion

The IGD-20 Test was applicable to Chinese youth and its Chinese version generally demonstrated good psychometric properties.

Open access

Background and aims

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) imposes a potential public health threat worldwide. Gaming motives are potentially salient factors of IGD, but research on Chinese gaming motives is scarce. This study empirically evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire (C-MOGQ), the first inventory that measures seven different gaming motives applicable to all type of online games. We also investigated the associations between various gaming motives and IGD symptoms among Chinese gamers.

Methods

Three hundred and eighty-three Chinese adult online gamers (Mean age = 23.7 years) voluntarily completed our online, anonymous survey in December 2015.

Results

The confirmatory factor analysis results supported a bi-factor model with a general factor subsuming all C-MOGQ items (General Motivation) and seven uncorrelated domain-specific factors (Escape, Coping, Fantasy, Skill Development, Recreation, Competition, and Social). High internal consistencies of the overall scale and subscales were observed. The criterion-related validity of this Chinese version was also supported by the positive correlations of C-MOGQ scale scores with psychological need satisfaction and time spent gaming. Furthermore, we found that high General Motivation (coupled with high Escape motive and low Skill Development motive) was associated with more IGD symptoms reported by our Chinese participants.

Discussion and conclusions

Our findings demonstrated the utility of C-MOGQ in measuring gaming motives of Chinese online gamers, and we recommend the consideration of both its total score and subscale scores in future studies.

Open access

Background and aims

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been mainly studied among adolescents, and no research to date has examined its prevalence in general Chinese adult populations. This study estimated the prevalence of probable IGD in community-dwelling adults in Macao, China. Associations between IGD and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) as well as IGD and character strength (i.e., psychological resilience and purpose in life) were also tested.

Methods

A random, representative sample of 1,000 Chinese residents (44% males; mean age = 40.0) was surveyed using a telephone poll design from October to November 2016.

Results

The estimated prevalence of probable IGD was 2.0% of the overall sample and 4.3% among the recent gamers (n = 473), with no statistically significant sex and age effects observed (p > .05). The two most prevalent IGD symptoms were mood modification and continued engagement, despite negative consequences. Probable IGD respondents were more vulnerable to psychological distress (25.0% and 45.0% for moderate or above levels of depression and anxiety, respectively) than their non-IGD counterparts. They also reported a lower level of psychological resilience than non-IGD respondents. No significant buffering effect of the two character strength variables on the distress–IGD relationship was found.

Discussion and conclusions

These results provide empirical evidence that IGD is a mental health threat not only to adolescents but also to adults. IGD was significantly associated with psychological distress, which should be addressed in conjunction with IGD symptoms in interventions. Inclusion of gamers of both sexes and different age groups in future prevention programs is also recommended.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Andrea Czakó
,
Orsolya Király
,
Patrik Koncz
,
Shu M. Yu
,
Harshdeep S. Mangat
,
Judith A Glynn
,
Pedro Romero
,
Mark D Griffiths
,
Hans-Jürgen Rumpf
, and
Zsolt Demetrovics

Abstract

The present paper provides an overview of the possible risks, harms, and challenges that might arise with the development of the esports field and pose a threat to professional esports players, spectators, bettors and videogame players, including underage players. These include physical and mental health issues, gambling and gambling-like elements associated with videogames and esports, the challenges arising from pursuing a career in esports, the unique difficulties women face, and a need for supporting professional esports players. It briefly discusses possible responses and suggestions regarding how to address and mitigate these negative consequences. It emphasizes the need for cooperation and collaboration between various stakeholders: researchers, policymakers, regulators, the gaming industry, esports organizations, healthcare and treatment providers, educational institutes and the need for further evidence-based information.

Open access