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  • Author or Editor: Shu Yang x
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Abstract  

Pooling lauroyl peroxide (LPO) with nitric acid, we used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to assess the thermokinetic parameters, such as exothermic onset temperature (T 0), heat of decomposition (ΔH d), frequency factor (A), and the other safety parameters. When LPO was contaminated with nitric acid (HNO3), we found the exploder 1-nitrododecane. Obvious products were sensitive and hazardous chemicals. Concentration reaching 1–12 N HNO3 emitted a large amount of heat. This study combined with curve-fitting method to elucidate its unsafe characteristics and thermally sensitive structure to help prevent runaway reactions, fires and explosions in the process environment. According to the findings and the concept of inherently safer design, LPO runaway reactions could be adequately prevented in the relevant plants.

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Abstract  

In this study, α-phase nucleating agent (NA) 1,3:2,4-bis(3,4-dimethylbenzylidene) sorbitol (DMDBS), β-phase rare earth NA (WBG), and their compound NAs were introduced into isotactic polypropylene (iPP) matrix, respectively. Crystallization kinetics and subsequent melting behavior of the nucleated iPPs were comparatively studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under both isothermal and nonisothermal conditions. For the isothermal crystallization process, it is found that the Avrami model successfully described the crystallization kinetics. The active energy of nonisothermal crystallization of iPP was determined by the Kissinger method and showed that the addition of nucleating agents increased the activation energy. Melting behavior and crystalline structure of the nucleated iPPs are dependent on the nature of NAs and crystallization conditions. Higher proportion of β-phase can be obtained at higher content of β-nucleating agent and lower crystallization temperature or lower cooling rate.

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Four geminal ionic liquids (GILs), namely, 1,4-bis(1,1′-butyl-3,3′- methylene- imidazolium)-benzene bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (BBMIB-NTf2), 1,4- bis(1,1′-butyl-3,3′-methylene-imidazolium)-benzene tetrafluoroborate (BBMIB-BF4), 1,4- bis(1,1′-butyl-3,3′-methylene-imidazolium)-benzene hexafluophosphate (BBMIB-PF6), and 1,4-bis(1,1′-methyl-3,3′-methylene-imidazolium)-benzene bis[(trifluoromethyl) sulfonyl] imide (BMMIB-NTf2), were synthesized. They were statically coated onto the inner walls of fused-silica capillary columns and used as stationary phases for gas chromatography. The evaluation of BBMIB-NTf2, BBMIB-BF4, BBMIB-PF6, and BMMIB-NTf2 as stationary phases is reported here for the first time. These new stationary phases exhibit efficiencies of at least 2.3 × 103 plates per meter. Abraham solvation parameter model was used to evaluate the solvation characteristics. The system constants indicated that the dipolarity/polarizability and the hydrogen-bond basicity play a major role among five molecular interactions between stationary phases and solute molecules. A fundamental understanding into the solvation characteristics of these GILs can be used as a guide to choosing the appropriate geminal ionic liquids for specific applications in various fields. The chromatographic separation performance was evaluated by a Grob test mixture, n-alkanes, alcohols, and aromatic isomers. Furthermore, the thermal stability was tested. The present results demonstrate that these geminal ionic liquids stationary phases possess excellent chromatographic separation performance and good thermal stability (at least up to 270 °C) and may be applicable as gas chromatography stationary phases for more application.

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Abstract  

Lauroyl peroxide (LPO) is a typical organic peroxide that has caused many thermal runaway reactions and explosions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was employed to determine the fundamental thermokinetic parameters that involved exothermic onset temperature (T0), heat of decomposition (ΔHd), and other safety parameters for loss prevention of runaway reactions and thermal explosions. Frequency factor (A) and activation energy (Ea) were calculated by Kissinger model, Ozawa equation, and thermal safety software (TSS) series via DSC experimental data. Liquid thermal explosion (LTE) by TSS was employed to simulate the thermal explosion development for various types of storage tank. In view of loss prevention, calorimetric application and model analysis to integrate thermal hazard development were necessary and useful for inherently safer design.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Yang Ya-xin, Liu Qing-cheng, Wu Xin-min, Huang Yan-jun, Lin Jun, Wu Ya-mei, Li Shu-zhen, and Hsia Yuan-fu

Summary  

A new air radon monitor is proposed based on the combination of an aluminum disk and an electric multilevel clearance system (EMCS). The positively charged, small aluminum disk has a high collection ability to radon with a collection efficiency of about 60%. The old radon progenies were eliminated by the EMCS in the air entrance of the monitor with an efficiency of about 99%. The monitor was calibrated in the national standard radon chamber in Hengyang, China. Compared to the radon double-filter equipment, the results, gained by both apparatus, coincide with each other.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: J. Zhi, W. Tian-Fang, L. Shu-Fen, Z. Feng-Qi, L. Zi-Ru, Y. Cui-Mei, L. Yang, L. Shang-Wen, and Z. Gang-Zhui

Abstract  

The effects of aluminum (Al) and nickel (Ni) powders of various grain sizes on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) were investigated by TG and DSC in a dynamic nitrogen atmosphere. The TG results show that Al powders have no effect on the thermal decomposition of AP at conventional grain size, while the nanometer-sized Ni powders (n-Ni) have a great influence on the thermal decomposition of AP with conventional and superfine grain size. The results obtained by DSC and an in situ FTIR analysis of the solid residues confirmed the promoting effects of n-Ni. The effects of n-Ni have been ascribed to its enhancement on the gas phase reactions during the second step decomposition of conventional grain size AP.

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