Authors:Boris Habrun, Ivana Račić, Relja Beck, Ana Budimir, Miroslav Benić, Gordan Kompes, Silvio Špičić and Željko Cvetnić
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have emerged worldwide and have become resistant to a variety of antibiotics. MRSA colonisation in pigs was first reported from the Netherlands in 2005, where pigs were implicated as a source of human MRSA infections (Voss et al., 2005). This paper presents the first report on the presence of MRSA on large pig breeding farms in Croatia, together with the determination of the mecA gene, the results of spa typing and susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials. Dust samples (7–11 per farm) were collected from eight large pig farms in Croatia. Of the total 68 swabs, the mecA gene was detected in 24 isolates growing on the MRSA agar. All isolates were resistant to oxacillin, tetracycline and streptomycin, and susceptible only to vancomycin, while 92% of the strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Genotyping of the MRSA strains was performed by spa typing, and revealed t011 (n = 17), t034 (n = 5) and t1451 (n = 2). The results presented here predict that MRSA is present on a large number of pig farms in Croatia.
Authors:Sanja Duvnjak, Ivana Račić, Silvio Špičić, Maja Zdelar-Tuk, Irena Reil and Željko Cvetnić
The most recent data on the incidence of brucellosis in Southeast Europe prove the persistence of this zoonosis in the area, regardless of constant efforts at controlling it as one of the most dangerous zoonoses. Forty-three Brucella melitensis strains were collected from cattle, sheep, goats and humans from Croatia as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina between 2009 and 2015. The strains were identified and genotyped in order to determine their epidemiological background. Standard biotyping methods and Bruce-ladder were used to identify the strains. Genotyping was done using multilocus variable number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) on 16 and multilocus sequence typing analysis (MLST) on nine loci. Results were compared to each other and to internationally available data. Twenty- five novel genotypes and two sequence types were identified. All tested strains, apart from vaccine and reference strains, showed very close phylogenetic and geographic relationships. The genotyping results indicate the endemicity of brucellosis in this region. MLST showed no variation, confirming the stability of housekeeping genes. The results confirm already established routes of disease spread in this area, showing that a more detailed and vigorous control of this zoonosis is necessary.