Authors:Snežana Tomanović, Željko Radulović, Toshiyuki Masuzawa, Marija Milutinović, and Ljubiša Stanisavljević
strains from different geographical regions are characterised by diverse potential infectivity for humans and domesticated animals. We investigated the potential pathogenicity of
ticks from 11 geographically different localities in Serbia. Sequences obtained in this study showed a high variability of
paralogues. Some of them, however, formed groups with similarities greater than 86% (‘similarity groups’). Previous studies showed that ‘similarity groups’ were nearly always country specific. Our results correlated with this observation, and we also observed significant clustering of paralogues according to vector and reservoir origin of
strains. According to the high genetic similarity of sequences isolated from ticks collected in four localities, namely Avala, Batrovci, Hajdučka česma and Ljubovija, with paralogues with proven pathogenicity isolated from human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) patients and
infected sheep, we could assume that strains with potential infectivity for humans and domestic animals were present in Serbia.
Canine babesiosis is a frequent and clinically significant tick-borne disease. Sixty symptomatic dogs with clinical findings compatible with babesiosis were included in this study conducted in Serbia. After clinical examination, blood samples were taken for microscopic examination, complete blood count (CBC), Canine SNAP 4Dx Test, DNA analyses and sequencing. The main clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, fever, brown/red discoloration of urine, pale mucous membranes, icterus, splenomegaly, and vomiting. The main clinicopathological findings in Babesia infections were a slight to severe thrombocytopenia and a mild to very severe normocytic normochromic anaemia. Microscopic evaluation revealed 58 positive samples with the presence of large and small intraerythrocytic piroplasms in 57 and 1 sample(s), respectively. No co-infections were found using SNAP test. Two Babesia species, B. canis (58/60) and B. gibsoni (2/60), were differentiated by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Species identification was further confirmed by sequencing PCR products of B. gibsoni samples and six randomly selected B. canis samples. All dogs were treated with imidocarb dipropionate (6.6 mg/kg of body weight), given intramuscularly twice at an interval of 14 days. This report presents the first molecular evidence of the occurrence of B. gibsoni and B. canis, confirmed by DNA sequencing, in sick dogs from Serbia.
Authors:Salem Juwaid, Ratko Sukara, Aleksandra Penezić, Darko Mihaljica, Gorana Veinović, Nickolas G. Kavallieratos, Duško Ćirović, and Snežana Tomanović
Tick-borne haematozoans cause severe diseases in domestic animals, and some of them have zoonotic potential. The results of previous studies in Europe point to the important role of foxes in natural endemic cycles of several tick-borne pathogens, including protozoa. The aim of the present research was to acquire information on the prevalence and distribution of tick-borne protozoan parasites among foxes in Serbia. Legally hunted foxes from 14 localities throughout Serbia were analysed. Spleen samples were collected from 129 animals and tested for the presence of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. by PCR. In total, 79/129 (61.2%) of the tested foxes were positive for H. canis, while the presence of two Babesia species was confirmed: B. vulpes (37/129, 28.7%) and B. canis (1/129, 0.8%). Coinfection with B. vulpes and H. canis was present in 26/129 (20.2%) foxes and one animal (1/129, 0.8%) was co-infected by B. canis and H. canis. The results of this study indicate the important role of foxes in the epizootiology of B. vulpes and H. canis in the Republic of Serbia and stress the need for further research to clarify all elements of the enzootic cycle of the detected pathogens, including other reservoirs, vectors, and transmission routes.
Authors:Gorana Veinović, Sanja Ćakić, Darko Mihaljica, Ratko Sukara, Eva Ružić–Sabljić, and Snežana Tomanović
In the present study, the effectiveness of six antimicrobial agents have been tested against 24 borrelia strains isolated from Ixodes ricinus ticks (11 Borrelia lusitaniae, eight Borrelia afzelii, three Borrelia garinii and two Borrelia valaisiana) and one B. lusitaniae strain isolated from human skin. The minimum inhibitory concentration range of antimicrobial agents was as follows: amoxicillin, 0.125–2 mg/L; doxycycline, 0.125–1 mg/L, ceftriaxone, 0.016–0.063 mg/L; cefuroxime, 0.063–1 mg/L; azithromycin, 0.0017–0.11 mg/L; amikacin 32–512 mg/L. Potentially pathogenic B. lusitaniae and B. valaisiana species were more susceptible to amoxicillin and azithromycin than pathogenic B. afzelii and B. garinii (P < 0.05); B. garinii, B. lusitaniae and B. valaisiana were more susceptible to doxycycline than B. afzelii (P < 0.05) while all species showed same susceptibility to ceftriaxone and cefuroxime (P > 0.05). This study is the first report on in vitro susceptibility of isolates from Serbia to antimicrobial agents and the first report on susceptibility of larger number of isolates of potentially pathogenic species B. lusitaniae. We showed that antimicrobial agents in vitro inhibit growth of borrelia strains very effectively, indicating the potential of their equally beneficial use in the treatment of Lyme borreliosis.