Authors:Jory Deleuze, Filip Nuyens, Lucien Rochat, Stéphane Rothen, Pierre Maurage and Joël Billieux
Background and aims
The DSM-5 includes criteria for diagnosing Internet gaming disorder (IGD) that are adapted from substance abuse and widely used in research and clinical contexts, although evidence supporting their validity remains scarce. This study compared online gamers who do or do not endorse IGD criteria regarding self-control-related abilities (impulsivity, inhibitory control, and decision-making), considered the hallmarks of addictive behaviors.
A double approach was adopted to distinguish pathological from recreational gamers: The first is the classic DSM-5 approach (≥5 criteria required to endorse the IGD diagnosis), and the second consists in using latent class analysis (LCA) for IGD criteria to distinguish gamers’ subgroups. We computed comparisons separately for each approach. Ninety-seven volunteer gamers from the community were recruited. Self-reported questionnaires were used to measure demographic- and game-related characteristics, problematic online gaming (with the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire), impulsivity (with the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale), and depression (with the Beck Depression Inventory-II). Experimental tasks were used to measure inhibitory control (Hybrid-Stop Task) and decision-making abilities (Game of Dice Task).
Thirty-two participants met IGD criteria (33% of the sample), whereas LCA identified two groups of gamers [pathological (35%) and recreational]. Comparisons that used both approaches (DSM-5 and LCA) failed to identify significant differences regarding all constructs except for variables related to actual or problematic gaming behaviors.
The validity of IGD criteria is questioned, mostly with respect to their relevance in distinguishing high engagement from pathological involvement in video games.
Authors:Elisabeth Franc, Yasser Khazaal, Katarzyna Jasiowka, Thibault Lepers, Francesco Bianchi-Demicheli and Stéphane Rothen
Background and aims
The Internet is widely used for sexual activities and pornography. Little is known, however, about why people look for meetings and sexual interactions through the Internet and about the correlates of cybersex addiction. The goal of this study was to construct a questionnaire for cybersex motives [Cybersex Motives Questionnaire (CysexMQ)] by adapting the Gambling Motives Questionnaire to cybersex use and validating its structure.
Two online samples of 191 and 204 cybersex users were collected to conduct a principal component analysis (PCA) on the first sample and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the second. Cronbach’s α and composite reliability were computed to assess internal consistency. Correlations between the CysexMQ and the Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI) were also evaluated.
Two competing models were retained from the PCA, one with two factors and the other with three factors. The CFA showed better fit for the three-factor solution. After three cross-loading items were removed, the results showed that a final 14-item three-factor solution (enhancement, coping, and social motives) was valid (adjusted goodness-of-fit index: 0.993; normed-fit index: 0.978; Tucker–Lewis index: 0.985; comparative fit index: 0.988; root mean square error of approximation: 0.076). Positive correlations were found between the different motives and the subscales of the SDI.
The results suggest that the CysexMQ is adequate for the assessment of cybersex motives.
Authors:Farah Ben Brahim, Stephane Rothen, Francesco Bianchi-Demicheli, Robert Courtois and Yasser Khazaal
Background and aims
Cybersex is increasingly associated with concerns about compulsive use. The aim of this study was to assess the roles of motives and sexual desire in the compulsive use of cybersex.
The sample consisted of 306 cybersex users (150 men and 156 women). The participants were assessed using the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) adapted for cybersex, the Cybersex Motives Questionnaire (enhancement, coping, and social motives), and the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 (dyadic and solitary sexual desire).
For both genders, coping motive was associated with CIUS score. For women, an additional association with social motives was found whereas an association with sexual desire was found for men.
The study showed gender differences in the contributors to sex-related CIUS scores.