Authors:Yoon J. Kim, Mi S. Lim, Su M. Kim, Ki H. Ryu and Sun H. Choi
Tobacco rattle virus (TRV-K) was first identified in a symptomatic Gladiolus plant cultivated in Korea. We analyzed the TRV-K genome and compared its phylogeny with other TRV isolates. After constructing of a full-length genomic RNA2 strand clone, a complete sequence was generated from several overlapping clones. The cloned genome was 3261 bases in length, identical to TRV-K, and had three open reading frames. TRV-K had the highest sequence identity with the American isolate TRV-ORY. Sequence analysis of the RNA2 genome showed that TRV-K contains an intact 2a, 2b, and 2c coding sequence and an RNA1-related 3′ terminus, which is typical of TRV RNA2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that TRV-K is in the same cluster as the American isolates and another Korean isolate, TRV-SK; however, it was in a different cluster than the European isolates.
Authors:Sun Mi Kim, Doug Hyun Han, Young Sik Lee, Jieun E. Kim and Perry F. Renshaw
Background and aims: Several studies have suggested that addictive disorders including substance abuse and pathologic gambling might be associated with dysfunction on working memory and prefrontal activity. We hypothesized that excessive online game playing is associated with deficits in prefrontal cortex function and that recovery from excessive online game playing might improve prefrontal cortical activation in response to working memory stimulation. Methods: Thirteen adolescents with excessive online game playing (AEOP) and ten healthy adolescents (HC) agreed to participate in this study. The severity of online game play and playing time were evaluated for a baseline measurement and again following four weeks of treatment. Brain activation in response to working memory tasks (simple and complex calculations) at baseline and subsequent measurements was assessed using BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results: Compared to the HC subjects, the AEOP participants exhibited significantly greater activity in the right middle occipital gyrus, left cerebellum posterior lobe, left premotor cortex and left middle temporal gyrus in response to working memory tasks during baseline measurements. After four weeks of treatment, the AEOP subjects showed increased activity within the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left occipital fusiform gyrus. After four weeks of treatment, changes in the severity of online game playing were negatively correlated with changes in the mean β value of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in response to complex stimulation. Conclusions: We suggest that the effects of online game addiction on working memory may be similar to those observed in patients with substance dependence.
Authors:Hoonsung Choi, Sang In Lee, Shanmugam Sureshkumar, Mi-Hyang Jeon, Jeom Sun Kim, Mi-Ryung Park, Kyung-Woon Kim, Ik-Soo Jeon, Sukchan Lee and Sung June Byun
The 3D8 single-chain variable fragment (scFv) is a mini-antibody sequence with independent nuclease activity that shows antiviral effects against all types of viruses in chickens and mice. In this study, chickens were treated daily with an oral dose of 109 CFU Lactobacillus paracasei (L. paracasei) expressing either a secreted or anchored 3D8 scFv for three weeks. After L. paracasei administration, the chickens were challenged with avian influenza virus (AIV). From each experimental group, three chickens were directly infected with 100 µL of 107.5 EID50/mL H9N2 AIV and seven chickens were indirectly challenged through contact transmission. oropharyngeal and cloacal swab samples were collected at 3, 5, 7, and 9 days post-inoculation (dpi) from AIV-challenged chickens, AIV Shedding titres were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Contact transmission in the chickens that were fed 3D8 scFv-secreting L. paracasei showed a significant reduction in viral shedding when compared with other groups. These results suggest that L. paracasei secreting 3D8 provides a basis for the development of ingestible antiviral probiotics with activity against AIV.