Authors:Sun-Ju Shen, Sheng-Hung Wu, Jen-Hao Chi, Yih-Wen Wang, and Chi-Min Shu
Dicumyl peroxide (DCPO) is usually employed as an initiator for polymerization, a source of free radicals, a hardener, and
a linking agent. In Asia, due to its unstable reactive nature, DCPO has caused many thermal explosions and runaway reaction
incidents in the manufacturing process. This study was conducted to elucidate its essentially thermal hazard characteristics.
In order to analyze the runaway behavior of DCPO in a batch reactor, thermokinetic parameters, such as heat of decomposition
(ΔHd) and exothermic onset temperature (T0), were measured via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermal runaway phenomena were then thoroughly investigated
by DSC. The thermokinetics of DCPO mixed with acids or bases were determined by DSC, and the experimental data were compared
with kinetics-based curve fitting of thermal safety software (TSS). Solid thermal explosion (STE) and liquid thermal explosion
(LTE) simulations of TSS were applied to determine the fundamental thermal explosion behavior in large tanks or drums. Results
from curve fitting indicated that all of the acids or bases could induce exothermic reactions at even an earlier stage of
the experiments. In order to diminish the extent of hazard, hazard information must be provided to the manufacturing process.
Thermal hazard of DCPO mixed with nitric acid (HNO3) was more dangerous than with other acids including sulfuric acid (H2SO4), phosphoric acid (H3PO4), and hydrochloric acid (HCl). By DSC, T0, heat of decomposition (ΔHd), and activation energy (Ea) of DCPO mixed with HNO3 were calculated to be 70 °C, 911 J g−1, and 33 kJ mol−1, respectively.
Authors:Yu-Chuan Liang, Can-Yong Jhu, Sheng-Hung Wu, Sun-Ju Shen, and Chi-Min Shu
Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKPO) is generally applied to manufacturing in the polymerization processes. Due to thermal instability and high exothermic behaviors of MEKPO, if any operation is undertaken recklessly or some environmental effect is produced suddenly during the processes, fires and explosions may inevitably occur. In this study, thermal analysis was evaluated for MEKPO by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) test. Vent sizing package 2 (VSP2) was used to analyze the thermal hazard of MEKPO under various stirring rates in a batch reactor. Thermokinetic and safety parameters, including exothermic onset temperature (T0), maximum temperature (Tmax), maximum pressure (Pmax), self-heating rate (dT dt−1), pressure rise rate (dP dt−1), and so on, were discovered to identify the safe handling situation. The stirring rates of reactor were confirmed to affect runaway and thermal hazard characteristics in the batch reactor. If the stirring rate was out of control, it could soon cause a thermal hazard in the reactor.
Authors:Chung-Hwei Su, Sheng-Hung Wu, Sun-Ju Shen, Gong-Yih Shiue, Yih-Weng Wang, and Chi-Min Shu
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the main factors involved in pollution control and global warming in industrialized
nations. Various treatment methods involving incineration, adsorption, etc., were employed to reduce VOCs concentration. Various
absorbents, such as activated carbon, zeolite, silica gel or alumina, and so on were broadly used to adsorb VOCs in various
industrial applications. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was handled to analyze the thermal characteristics of absorbents.
Typically, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used to evaluate the structure variation of absorbents under high
temperature situations. In view of pollution control and loss prevention, versatility and analysis of recycled adsorbents
are necessary and useful for various industrial applications.