Authors:Sung-Eun Kim, Jin-Woo Kim and Yong-Seok Jee
Background and Aims
Excessive usage of smartphones may induce social problems, such as depression and impairment of social and emotional functioning. Moreover, its usage can impede physical activity, but the relationship between smartphone addiction and physical activity is obscure. Therefore, we examined the relationship and the impact of excessive smartphone use on physical activity.
This study collected data through the structured questionnaire consisting of general characteristics, the number and hours of smartphone usage, and the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) from 110 Chinese international students in Korea. The body composition and physical activity, such as the total daily number of steps and consumed calories, were measured.
In this study, high-risk smartphone users showed less physical activity, such as the total number of steps taken and the average consumed calories per day. Moreover, their body composition, such as muscle mass and fat mass, was significantly different. Among these factors, the hours of smartphone use revealed the proportional relationship with smartphone addiction (β = 0.209, p = 0.026), while the average number of walking steps per day showed a significant reverse proportional tendency in participants with smartphone addiction (β = –0.883, p < 0.001).
Participants with smartphone addiction were less likely to walk for each day. Namely, smartphone addiction may negatively influence physical health by reducing the amount of physical activity, such as walking, resulting in an increase of fat mass and a decrease of muscle mass associated with adverse health consequences.
Authors:Yeon-Jin Kim, Jae A. Lim, Ji Yoon Lee, Sohee Oh, Sung Nyun Kim, Dai Jin Kim, Jong Eun Ha, Jun Soo Kwon and Jung-Seok Choi
Background and aims
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is characterized by a loss of control and a preoccupation with Internet games leading to repetitive behavior. We aimed to compare the baseline neuropsychological profiles in IGD, alcohol use disorder (AUD), and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) in the spectrum of impulsivity and compulsivity.
A total of 225 subjects (IGD, N = 86; AUD, N = 39; OCD, N = 23; healthy controls, N = 77) were administered traditional neuropsychological tests including Korean version of the Stroop Color–Word test and computerized neuropsychological tests, including the stop signal test (SST) and the intra–extra dimensional set shift test (IED).
Within the domain of impulsivity, the IGD and OCD groups made significantly more direction errors in SST (p = .003, p = .001) and showed significantly delayed reaction times in the color–word reading condition of the Stroop test (p = .049, p = .001). The OCD group showed the slowest reading time in the color–word condition among the four groups. Within the domain of compulsivity, IGD patients showed the worst performance in IED total trials measuring attentional set shifting ability among the groups.
Both the IGD and OCD groups shared impairment in inhibitory control functions as well as cognitive inflexibility. Neurocognitive dysfunction in IGD is linked to feature of impulsivity and compulsivity of behavioral addiction rather than impulse dyscontrol by itself.
Authors:Ha-Yeon Kim, Gi-Hoon Lee, Chung-Hwan Jun, Kang-Jin Park, Sung-Bum Cho, Jin-Woong Kim and Young-Eun Joo
Metastasis to the ampulla of Vater from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rarely encountered. We present the case of a 50-year-old male admitted with complaints of right upper quadrant pain and jaundice. The medical history consisted of a right radical nephrectomy, right adrenalectomy, and brain mass excision for RCC and metastasis. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a round ampullary mass with ulceration. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed an enhancing mass in the ampulla of Vater, total pancreas, and left adrenal gland. Pathologic examination of a biopsy specimen was compatible with metastatic RCC of the clear cell type. A percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram revealed complete obstruction of the distal common bile duct. A metal stent was inserted for bile drainage via the percutaneous transhepatic route. Patients with a history of RCC should undergo a careful long-term follow-up to detect and evaluate metastasis to usual and unusual sites.