Several studies state that there might be a difference in the physical development and the motor performance of the mentally non-handicapped children and those with intellectual and development disabilities. The aim of our research was to compare the two groups from these aspects. The study included the assessment of the physical development and motor performance of altogether 225 primary school pupils (mentally non-handicapped and with intellectual and development disabilities) aged 8–11. The following indicators of physical development and build were examined: body height, body weight and body mass index (BMI), musculoskeletal plasticity index, biceps and triceps skinfold thickness. The motor tests included: 20 m dash, standing long jump, medicine-ball throwing, six minutes continuous running, obstacle race-test and a match test. We also examined the children’s chronological (decimal) and morphological age. Data were analysed with SPSS programme. The differences between the averages were calculated with ANOVA and Fisher’s LSD tests. The results show that the children with intellectual and development disabilities are in general less developed physically than non-handicapped children of the same age and sex. It is also concluded that in most motor tests the children with intellectual and development disabilities fall behind the non-handicapped ones.
A widely described phenomenon all over Europe is that reed decline begins from greater water depths - i.e. clumping is more expressed at the open water fringe while stands towards the lakeshore are homogeneous and intact. To understand the possible background processes, the present paper examined the differences between the element concentrations of reed organs (root, rhizome, stem and leaf), and the substrate (i.e. sediment or soil) along water depth gradients in Lake Balaton, Hungary. Differences between the mineral compositions of reed organs and the substrate and the impact of water depth on element concentration of samples were investigated. Relations between water depth and element concentrations of substrate and plant organs and interelement correlations in the samples were also considered. In addition to other results, element concentrations provided indirect evidence for increasing hypoxia (anoxia) in the sediment under greater water depths possibly contributing to reed decline. Although, the greater water depth is associated with higher element concentrations in the substrate, the uptake of minerals in reed are impeded by anoxia. Towards the greater water depth, for instance, the higher N concentration of substrate was not associated with more N in leaves (even a slight decrease was observed). On the other hand, elements (e.g. Fe and S) with increasing availability in reduced state, reached high concentrations in reed leaves from greater water depth, which may also indicate the insufficient O2 level in the rhizosphere
Malnutrition inhibits children from normal development and leads to irreversible consequences with respect to mental and physical performance.
Materials and methods
We analysed the aggregate data in the 2013–2015 reports of regional visiting nurses on the nutritional status of Hungarian children at the ages of 1, 3, and 5 years. In the regions of Hungary, stratum-specific proportions were calculated with 95% confidence intervals for the proportion of children with lower than a 10th percentile score.
The proportions of malnutrition among children whose score was below the 10th percentile nationwide were 8.14% [8.03%–8.25%] at age 1, 6.87% [8.03%–8.25%] at age 3, and 5.68% [5.59%–5.78%] at age 5. In all three age groups, the proportion of children below the 10th percentile was significantly lower in the Central Hungarian region than in the national reference proportion and in Northern Hungary and the Southern Great Plain.
Discussion and conclusions
These results indicate that Hungary’s incidence of malnutrition is no better than the worldwide average. To improve this situation, Hungarian healthcare professionals must at least begin following a precise, standardized protocol for the compulsory assessment of nutritional status in the framework of their reporting on the primary care of children.
The aim of our report is to refer on the actual state of small biogas power plants in Hungary summarising the increase in their number and capacity and their effects on climatic change. The above is based on the CO2 emission of the energetic utilization of biogas and the calculation of its ecological footprint that were compared to the environmental effects of natural gas energetic utilization. The aim of this paper does not include the complete life cycle analysis therefore the environmental benefits of the energetic utilization of biogas produced from various raw material are presented via only the direct CO2 emission of the production process.
Heating with the use of ambient energy by heat pumps is a very effective way to reduce CO2 emission. However, efficiency, economic and environmental advantages depend on the type of the heat pump and the temperature of the source, the latter usually changes during the heating season. The aim of the paper is to give the annual pattern of the COP and emission as a function of the typical source temperature pattern, moreover yearly summarized energetic and emission values are also added in the case of air source, water source and ground source heat pump systems, compared to some conventional heating mode.
Nowadays, the membrane filtration technique is a commonly used method for the separation of whey. The most significant limitation of membrane applications is fouling, which causes flux decline. During this work, regenerated cellulose membranes covered by TiO2-nanoparticles were investigated and applied to the separation of whey solution. Experiments were carried out in a dead-end ultrafiltration cell, and the changes in filtration parameters and the photocatalytic effects of the UV irradiated TiO2 modified membrane surface on the membrane fouling were examined. Our results showed that the water flux decreased with increasing TiO2 layer thickness, but the retention of turbidity and of COD increased. After separation, the membrane surface was cleaned by UV irradiation by means of photocatalytic oxidation. It was found that the original flux was recoverable, while the retention of the membrane decreased after cleaning.
Elderberry pomace, by-product of juice pressing procedure, is still rich in biologically active compounds, especially antioxidants and phenolic compounds. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether elderberry pomace could be utilized as a source of natural colourings and preservatives. By a simple solvent extraction a proper food colouring could be produced from elderberry pomace characterized by similar colour values as pressed elderberry juice. A solvent ratio of 1:20 with 50% ethanol proved to be the optimal solvent extraction method to produce an extract rich in antioxidants showing inhibitory effect against Lysteria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. In elderberry pomace extract three main phenolic compounds: chlorogenic acid, rutin and coumaric acid have been identifed by HPLC analysis. Based on our results, elderberry pomace, a by-product of fruit processing technologies, seems to be suitable for developing natural food additives after appropriate clarifcation processes.
The importance of the treatment of water and wastewater has been steadily increasing because of the ever greater demands to eliminate environmental pollution. Pressure-driven membrane separation processes, including ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), have been widely used in water and wastewater treatment and are applied on an industrial scale worldwide. The aim of our paper is to introduce the results of our research team on this field. The main research area within the membrane separation was the reduction of resistances. The effect of ozonation, vibration and application of dolly particles were examined in our scientific works.
Consumers are becoming more interested in healthy nutrition. To meet consumer requirements, the possibility of the fruit and vegetable juice fermentation by bifidobacteria was investigated. Sour cherry, orange, carrot, and tomato juice was fermented with five Bifidobacterium strains (from human origin and starter culture). The tested strains have grown well in orange, carrot, and tomato juices. The B. longum Bb-46 strain demonstrated the best growth activities. It was found that ratio of the produced acetic and lactic acids are dependent on the Bifidobacterium strain rather than on the fermentation medium. The most intensive inhibition was observed against the Campylobacter jejuni strain. In course of the fermentation the antioxidant capacities slightly decreased, except when the orange juice was fermented with B. lactis Bb-12 and B. longum A4.8. The obtained results may contribute to the design of a novel functional food product.
Male Wistar rats wearing chronically implanted cortical electrodes were exposed to Mn-containing nanoparticles via the airways for 8 weeks following a 2-week pre-exposure period. The rats’ cortical electrical activity and open field motility was recorded simultaneously, in weekly repetitions. It was supposed that this technique can provide better insight in the development of Mn-induced CNS damage. Decreased motility (less distance covered, longer periods of immobility) and increased total power of cortical electrical activity developed in parallel in the first 4–5 weeks of treatment but showed little change afterwards. Both the behavioral and the electrophysiological effect were in fair correlation with the rats’ internal Mn exposure determined from brain samples. The results confirmed the non-linear dose- and time-dependence of Mn effects suggested by previous studies. Repeated simultaneous behavioral and electrophysiological recording during a longer treatment with neurotoxic metals (or other xenobiotics) seems to be a promising method.