A combined radiochemical separation method has been developed that enables the simultaneous determination of 234U, 235U, 238U, 237Np, 239,240Pu, 238Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 244Cm in medium and low level liquid radioactive wastes. The main steps of the method are sample destruction, co-precipitation
on iron(II)-hydroxide and calcium-oxalate, separation by extraction chromatography using supported dipentyl-pentyl phosphonate
(UTEVA) and supported N,N-octylphenyl-di-i-butylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide with tributyl phosphate (TRU), and α source preparation. The key parameter
of the method is the adjustment of the oxidation states of the actinoides before adding the sample onto the UTEVA column.
It has been determined that (NH4)2S2O8 can be used for oxidation state adjustment resulting sufficient chemical yields.
Authors:Sz. Vass, K. Süvegh, A. Vértes, and B. Molnár
Positron lifetime measurements were carried out in normal hexane vs. temperature in the range of 12.5–62.5°C. The evaluation of the lifetime spectra indicates the presence of four lifetime components, as published first by Jacobsen et al. An attempt is made to interprete the properties of the longest-living two components in terms of the microscopic structure of the liquid.
Authors:Sz. Osváth, N. Vajda, Zs. Molnár, É. Széles, and Zs. Stefánka
The majority of long-lived radionuclides produced in the nuclear fuel cycle can be regarded as “difficult-to-measure” nuclides,
hence chemical separation is needed before the nuclear measurement of them. A combined radiochemical procedure that enables
the simultaneous determination of some “difficult-to-measure” nuclides in medium and low level radioactive wastes has been
developed in our laboratory. Recently, this method has been extended for determination of 237Np and 93Zr. 237Np and 93Zr are pre-concentrated by co-precipitation on iron(II) hydroxide and zirconium oxide, separated by extraction chromatography
using UTEVA, and measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). As even traces of polyatomic ions and
isotopes at m/z 237 or 93 cause considerable interferences during ICP-MS detection, a purification step by extraction chromatography
was needed. Analyzing real samples (evaporation concentrates of a nuclear power plant) 66–99% and 31–99% chemical yields were
achieved for Np and Zr, respectively.
Authors:Sz. Osváth, N. Vajda, Zs. Stefánka, É. Széles, and Zs. Molnár
A combined radioanalytical method for determination of 93Zr and 237Np (as well as other actinoids) in radioactive wastes has been developed. Analytes were co-precipitated on iron(II)-hydroxide,
separated and purified on UTEVA columns, and detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. According to Zr and
Np, 65 and 75% yields were achieved, respectively.
Authors:M Kádár, GJ Szőllősi, SZ Molnár, and L Szabó
Malnutrition inhibits children from normal development and leads to irreversible consequences with respect to mental and physical performance.
Materials and methods
We analysed the aggregate data in the 2013–2015 reports of regional visiting nurses on the nutritional status of Hungarian children at the ages of 1, 3, and 5 years. In the regions of Hungary, stratum-specific proportions were calculated with 95% confidence intervals for the proportion of children with lower than a 10th percentile score.
The proportions of malnutrition among children whose score was below the 10th percentile nationwide were 8.14% [8.03%–8.25%] at age 1, 6.87% [8.03%–8.25%] at age 3, and 5.68% [5.59%–5.78%] at age 5. In all three age groups, the proportion of children below the 10th percentile was significantly lower in the Central Hungarian region than in the national reference proportion and in Northern Hungary and the Southern Great Plain.
Discussion and conclusions
These results indicate that Hungary’s incidence of malnutrition is no better than the worldwide average. To improve this situation, Hungarian healthcare professionals must at least begin following a precise, standardized protocol for the compulsory assessment of nutritional status in the framework of their reporting on the primary care of children.
Authors:A. Vaskó, P. Siró, I. László, Sz. Szatmári, L. Molnár, Béla Fülesdi, and Cs. Molnár
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy is a multifactorially determined process of the brain parenchyma. Among other factors, vasogenic causes have been shown to play a role in its development. The aim of the present work was to assess whether cerebral tissue oxygen saturation is influenced by administration of acetazolamide in septic patients compared to controls.
Authors:Zs. Molnár, Sz. Bánvölgyi, Á. Kozák, I. Kiss, E. Békássy-Molnár, and Gy. Vatai
Concentration of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) juice by combination of membrane processes was investigated. The pre-treatment steps were crushing, enzyme treatment, pressing and clarification by microfiltration (MF). Ceramic tube MF membrane was used at low pressure and temperature (3.9 bar and 30 °C).Nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) process with flatsheet membranes was studied to pre-concentrate the clarified and sterilized raspberry juice. The NF experiments were carried out at different flow-rates (400 l h−1 and 600 l h−1). Any significant effect of flow-rate was not experienced. Both pre-concentration processes were used at low temperature (30 °C) for a mild concentration of raspberry juice. For further concentration osmotic distillation (OD) was applied. The initial total soluble solid content of the raspberry juice was 8–10 °Brix, the final concentrate of OD was 70–80 °Brix.The membrane-, fouling- and the polarization layer resistance were determined in case of micro-, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis.The soft drinks, made from RO and OD concentrates, were compared with well-known conventional raspberry juice from trade. During the sensory analysis (the colour, odour, flavour, acid taste and general impression was evaluated) our juices were preferred by customers.The antioxidant capacity, total phenol, anthocyanin and acid content, the total cell count and the number of yeasts and moulds were determined in the permeate and retentate samples of the different filtration steps.
Authors:E. Milinki, Sz. Molnár, A. Kiss, D. Virág, and E. Pénzes-Kónya
Consumption of microalgae might be regarded as one of the key elements of nutrition of the future, as they are highly abundant in bioactive components. As a consequence examinations on fortification and enhancement of the original biological value of microalgae are in the forefront of interest. Chlorella vulgaris, a unicellular green algae, constituted the focus point of our research, being a fairly frequent species available and purchasable in commerce. Emphasis was laid on investigation of extent of microelements’ bioaccumulation in cases of (Fe(III), Cu(II), Zn(II), Mo(VI)), in growth media containing diverse amounts of the metals. Bioaccumulating capability of Chlorella vulgaris was excellent in case of iron, which was studied with a two-week-long experiment in order to get information about the applicability of this alga species for production of functional food with enhanced microelement content. Metal-accumulating capacity of alginic acid being one of the major components of algae was also examined. Adsorption of Fe(II) to alginic acid was the weakest in comparison with copper(II), zinc(II), chromium(III) and chromium(VI).For the estimation of bioavailability of the algae-bound metals, in vitro digestion model experiments have been performed, pointing out that the available amounts of Fe(II) and Zn(II) are considerably higher than that of Cu(II). The studied microalga with high alginic acid content is suitable for application in microelement fortified functional foodstuffs due to the observed pronounced bioaccumulating feature.
Authors:G. Sramkó, G. Gulyás, G. Matus, Sz. Rudnóy, Z. Illyés, Z. Bratek, and A. Molnár V.
The taxonomy of the genus
, in which two European species, a smaller eastern
and a more robust western
are included, has been controversial since the description of the eastern species in 1821. Nuclear encoded ribosomal DNA ITS1 and the entire chloroplast DNA ITS were sequenced from several European populations, from France to the Ukraine, and the leaf width of mature living individuals was measured and analysed by ANOVA and Tukey-test. Although the studied DNA regions proved to be invariable, leaf width shows extreme variability. We found no correlation between the leaf size of the individuals and the geographical position of the populations, and in addition, the sequenced DNA regions showed total uniformity. Thus, our results do not support the division of the genus
into two taxa, at least in the sampled area. The formerly described size variants can be treated taxonomically at the
Authors:M. Kádár, G.J. Szőllősi, Sz. Molnár, L. Kardos, and L. Szabó
Understanding the role of nutrition in the development of children’s physical, mental, and motor abilities.
Examination of visiting nurse reports on feeding habits and perceived developmental delays in infants at 1 year of age between 2010 and 2015.
Between 0 and 6 months of age the lowest number of new cases (4.4/100,000) identified by health screenings can be anticipated among the infants feeding exclusively with breastmilk. We find a similarly low number of identifiable new cases among infants nourished with breastmilk where it is mixed with other nutrients (4.7 new cases) while the most cases of delayed motor development can be anticipated among infants nourished with infant formulae (48.4 new cases).
The role of nutrition in infants’ motor development is vital, especially breastfeeding. Regular health status checks of infants are inevitably required for the adoption of higher-level health-policy decisions which may induce projects, programmes, and strategies aimed at the improvement of health. Thorough documentation and continuous collection of the pertinent data is likewise requisite.