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CHAMP and GRACE global geopotential models EIGEN-3p, EIGEN-GRACE01S, GGM01S and GGM01C are compared with terrestrial gravity field data in Hungary. The methods used for comparison were direct comparison with gravity anomalies and the reference geoid solution method. We used free-air gravity anomalies interpolated on a 1' × 1.5' grid covering Hungary. In the second method these geopotential models were used to compute gravimetric geoid solutions and the results were compared with GPS/leveling data from EUVN campaign and the Hungarian GPS network. 

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Recent years of studies have suggested that the common crab spider (Xysticus kochi) has a great potential against the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) . The efficiency of applying a single predator against a pest however, is made uncertain by many different factors. Using a mixture of predators on the other hand, can overcome the difficulties of using a single-species agent, since different predators have different environmental demands and preying habits. Our experiments involved releasing a non-selected assemblage of arthropods, collected by sweep-net in alfalfa and stinging nettle, into greenhouse pepper stands. Interestingly, while there were twice as much thrips in the experimental greenhouses than in the control (mainly conventional) ones, crop yields were similar. The ratio of predators-preys in experimental greenhouses was not different from that in the control greenhouses, too. Probably the release of predators and lack of chemical treatments in experimental stands resulted in a 43% increase in the amount of Orius species. In search of a cost-effective, environment-friendly pest management method, the application of a mass-collected, non-selected assemblages of arthropods has a definite potential. Further investigations are needed to increase the efficiency and to monitor the potential drawbacks of this method.

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A ruderáliák talajaiban és növényeiben a feldúsult nehézfémek a környezetet szennyezik, és egyes növények - többek között a parlagfű ( Ambrosia elatior L . ) -képesek szerveikben az élettani igényeiknél nagyobb mennyiségben felhalmozni. Vizsgálatainkban tanulmányoztuk három − fajösszetételében, fémtartalmában és kialakulásában − eltérő terület talajának, valamint az ott tenyésző parlagfüvek gyökér, levél és virágzat „összes" kadmium-, réz-, nikkel- és cinktartalmát. A vizsgálati helyek távolsága légvonalban nem haladja meg a 20 km-t, az átlaghőmérséklet mindhárom vizsgálati évben (2000, 2001 és 2002) hasonló volt, a lehullott csapadékmennyiségek eltértek. A nem ruderália talaja átlagosan (0,42 mg Cd/kg; 2,32 mg Cu/kg; 5,25 mg Ni/kg; 40 mg Zn/kg), a kommunális hulladéklerakó (0,83 mg Cd/kg; 10,6 mg Cu/kg; 11,8 mg Ni/kg; 73 mg Zn/kg), az ipari galvániszap-tároló (3,33 mg Cd/kg; 159 mg Cu/kg; 457 mg Ni/kg; 3377 mg Zn/kg) fémeket tartalmazott, és a mennyiségek között - a kadmium kivételével - szignifikáns különbségek vannak. A talaj fémterhelésével növekszik a növények fémtartalma is. A parlagfű leginkább a gyökerekben halmozta a vizsgált fémeket. A nem ruderálián a gyökér (0,35 mg Cd/kg; 11,0 mg Cu/kg; 3,67 mg Ni/kg; 30,5 mg Zn/kg), a kommunális hulladéklerakón a gyökér (0,34 mg Cd/kg; 17,2 mg Cu/kg; 10,1 mg Ni/kg; 118 mg Zn/kg) fémeket tartalmazott. Az ipari galvániszap-tárolón (III.) tenyésző parlagfüvek gyökerében 0,97 mg/kg Cd-, 6,52 mg/kg Cu-, 17,9 mg/kg Ni- és 250 mg/kg Zn-tartalmat mértünk. A vizsgált fémmel nem szennyezett ruderálián (II.) a kontrollnak tekintett tölgytelepítéssel szemben (nem ruderália) nagyobb kadmium- (1,06 mg/kg), nikkel- (1,34 mg/kg) és cinktartalmat (73,3 mg/kg) mértünk a levelekben. Ugyanitt a virágzatban nagyobb a réz- (8,96 mg/kg) és cinktartalom (71,70 mg/kg). A fémmel szennyezett ipari ruderálián (III.) mind a levelekben (1,49 mg Cd/kg; 11,7 mg Cu/kg; 2,23 mg Ni/kg és 304 mg Zn/kg), mind a virágzatban (0,36 mg Cd/kg; 10,3 mg Cu/kg; 7,57 mg Ni/kg és 124 mg Zn/kg) több a fém, mint a nem ruderálián (I.). A talaj növekvő fémtartalma és a parlagfű kadmium-, nikkel és cinktartalma között erős pozitív korrelációkat mértünk. A parlagfű gyökerének, valamint levele és virágzata elemkoncentrációi közötti összefüggéseinek vizsgálatakor - a réz kivételével - erős korrelációkat kaptunk az iparterületen (III.). Az ipari galvániszap-tárolón a levél és virágzat Cd-felvételére vonatkozó korrelációs koefficiens értékei azt mutatják, hogy - eltérően az I. és II. vizsgálati hely adataitól - a kadmium és a többi fém közötti kapcsolat erősödik.

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The ovewintering of Frankliniella occidentalis adults was observed in a relativelymild winter in the years of 2006–2007, outdoors in the surroundings of forced beds, under continental climatic conditions, in Hungary.

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The relationship between virus, host plant and vector species is of primary importance for understanding the development of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV) epidemics. One of the vectors, Thrips tabaci , occurs in Hungarian greenhouses and their surroundings all year round. From June 2005 to May 2007 we conducted studies on weed hosts growing in the vicinity of sweet pepper greenhouses in order to know on which TSWV host weeds the larvae develop in different seasons. Of the 16 TSWV host weeds collected Stellaria media proved to be the most frequent weed species with the greatest abundance and it occurred the whole year round at all five investigated locations. Together with Galinsoga parviflora , which had the highest number of T. tabaci larvae in autumn, S. media is very probably the main source of TSWV for epidemics in greenhouses.

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Authors: Tibor Tóth, T. Németh, T. Fábián, T. Hermann, E. Horváth, Z. Patocskai, F. Speiser, Sz. Vinogradov and G. Tóth

An internet-based land valuation system is being developed to replace the scientifically obsolete Hungarian land valuation system, the so-called AK (“Gold Crown”) ratings. The new system is supported by a GIS and it is unique in its capability of providing an up-to-date index of soil quality and land value. The geographical information is provided by national map databases on genetic soil maps and soil attributes at the scale of 1:10.000, combined with cadastral maps, digital terrain model, topographic map, orthophotos of aerial photographs and agronomic field records. The automated algorithms are easy to update, can be made legally binding and can provide a transparent system for land taxation, calculation of subsidies, appropriation. Given that detailed (1:10,000 or finer) soil map coverage will be completed for all lands of Hungary (at date only 60% of the croplands have soil maps), this way a multifunctional system will be available that promotes an optimum use of land resources. 

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According to the Hungarian Soil Information and Monitoring System's (HSIMS) database a group estimation method was developed to predict the mean soil hydrophysical properties. The estimation efficiency of the worked out prediction procedures was controlled on a test database, and on a dataset of a study area. It can be established that the water retention and the hydraulic conductivity of soils are sufficiently predictable from the category data of soil maps. The 10-digit map codes of the PWW mapping method were created by different estimation methods, and as a result the PWW map was drawn. However, it is not always possible to estimate the necessary soil hydrophysical properties from the available map information for preparing the PWW map. Sometimes the knowledge gained from the field reports is needed as well. Further studies are planned for integrating these morphological information into our estimations.

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Authors: Sz. Nagy, A. Kovács, T. Zubor, Z. Zomborszky, J. Tóth and P. Horn

A simultaneous live/dead and acrosome staining, originally described for domestic mammals, was successfully applied on red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) spermatozoa collected from the cauda epididymidis and vas deferens of shot stags. The staining is simple enough for routine application. Seven classes of spermatozoa were distinguished in the smears of frozen/thawed semen samples. Morphology, including cytoplasmic droplets, was evaluated as well. Percentage of live cells with intact acrosomes and with no other morphological aberrations might be a practical index of semen quality.

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Apricot is an important fruit species in Hungary both for fresh consumption and processing. Physical parameters and change of nutrients of nine apricot cultivars were studied during the ripening period. Four Hungarian and five North-American apricot cultivars were chosen for investigation. Changes in the physical parameters were measured by three different methods (Magness-Taylor hand penetrometer, Bookfield CT3 Texture Analyser with TA 44 and TA 9 measuring head). Significant differences in flesh firmness among the cultivars were observed mainly at the beginning of ripening time. Adhesiveness, cohesiveness and chewiness of the fruits decreased continuously during ripening. The studied cultivars showed significant differences in these traits. Sugar and acid contents were also measured during ripening. The cultivars showed small differences in sugar content and bigger differences in acid content of the fruits. Our data measured and collected during this study can be useful in characterizing the apricot cultivars studied. Changes in the texture parameters responsible for transportability and the technological usability of the fruits were described across the whole ripening period. Our results may help growers as well as food technologists to determine the optimum harvest date of cultivars intended to be used for different purposes.

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Authors: P. Osváth, Zs Mészáros, Sz Tóth, K. Kiss, M. Mavroudes, N. Ng and János Mészáros

Fatness generally has a negative influence on the performance of a variety of motor and cardiorespiratory fitness tests. The aim of this comparison was to analyse the effects of three grades of obesity on somatic growth, physical performance and oxygen consumption during exercise. Volunteer boys with definitely different grades of obesity were recruited for the comparison. In the group of mildly obese children (G1; n=23) BMI ranged between 24 kg.m −2 and 26 kg.m −2 ; and individual percent body fat was between 33% and 33.5%. In the case of moderate obesity (G2; n=23) BMI ranged between 26.5 kg.m −2 and 28.5 kg.m −2 ; and percent body fat was between 35% and 36%. In the extremely obese group (G3; n=20) BMI was greater than 31 kg.m −2 ; percent body fat was greater than 37.5%. Oxygen consumption during the 1,200 m run-test was measured by VIMEX-ST-type (USA) telemetric equipment.The greatest absolute aerobic power referred to the G3 boys, and the lowest oxygen consumption was characteristic of the mildly obese group. The very high differences between the body mass means resulted in a more marked inter-group variability in mean relative oxygen uptake.The predicted relative fat and high body fat content observed on the trunk, and the elevated level of resting blood pressure may indicate serious risks for the development of cardio-respiratory and metabolic disease. The very low oxygen consumption relative to body mass and poor physical performance are expected consequences of physiologic and environmental influences on the obese population.

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