Written sources indicate that, disregarding fortresses, there were three types of man-made defence employed by the Khazars for the fortification of a camping ground: (1) building palisade, (2) encircling the settlement by carts, and (3) digging ditches round the camp. The Muslim authors Gardīzī, al-Marwazī and al-Bakrī indicated that the military camps of the Khazars were strengthened by board fence. Other Muslim authors reported that the Khazar capital was strengthened by the placement of carts around it. Finally, Ibn Rusta mentioned that the Khazars made ditches against the Hungarians (Magyars) and other enemies. The aim of this paper is to collect and analyse the data on the strengthening of the camp at the Khazars and among their neighbours.
Authors:Szabolcs Nagy, Péter J. Polgár, Magnus Andersson, and András Kovács
The aim of the present study was to test the FXCycle PI/RNase kit for routine DNA analyses in order to detect breeding bulls and/or insemination doses carrying cytogenetic aberrations. In a series of experiments we first established basic DNA histogram parameters of cytogenetically healthy breeding bulls by measuring the intraspecific genome size variation of three animals, then we compared the histogram profiles of bulls carrying cytogenetic defects to the baseline values. With the exception of one case the test was able to identify bulls with cytogenetic defects. Therefore, we conclude that the assay could be incorporated into the laboratory routine where flow cytometry is applied for semen quality control.