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  • Author or Editor: Szilárd Jánosi x
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The infectious origin of fatal cases of calf pneumonia was studied in 48 calves from 27 different herds on postmortem examination. Lung tissue samples were examined by pathological, histological, bacterial culture, virus isolation and immunohistochemical methods for the detection of viral and bacterial infections. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 47/48 cases and infectious agents were found in 40/47 (85%) of those cases. The presence of multiple respiratory pathogens in 23/40 (57.5%) cases indicated the complex origin of fatal calf pneumonia. The most important respiratory pathogens were Mannheimia-Pasteurella in 36/40 (90%) cases, followed by Arcanobacterium pyogenes in 16/40 (40%) cases, Mycoplasma bovis in 12/40 (30%) cases, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in 4/40 (10%) cases. Histophilus somni was detected in 2/40 (5%) cases, while bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and parainfluenza virus-3 were each found in 1/40 (2.5%) case. Mastadenovirus, bovine coronavirus, influenza A virus or Chlamydiaceae were not detected.

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Klebsiella (K.) oxytoca infection induced the abortion of a female equine fetus in the 10th month of pregnancy. Bacteria were cultured from the liver, lung and stomach content. They were labelled with an anti- Mycobacterium bovis antibody in the thymus, liver and lungs and were stained with Giemsa and Brown-Brenn staining in the thymus and lung. The diffusely consolidated lungs contained numerous grey-whitish foci 2–4 mm in diameter, which corresponded to severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia characterised by numerous intraalveolar neutrophils and macrophages and multinucleated Langhans’ giant cells. K. oxytoca was located in the cytoplasm of these cells, and extracellularly in the lumen of alveoli, bronchioles and bronchi, in the capsule of thymus and in the sinusoids of the liver. The results indicate that K. oxytoca can cause sporadic equine abortion.

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The applicability of an anti- Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) antibody-based immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure was investigated using everyday veterinary pathological samples collected from 13 different animal species. Fifty-one formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples were selected for this study. Forty, 4 and 7 tissue samples contained different species of bacteria, fungi and protozoa, respectively. Three serial sections were prepared in each case. Two sections were pre-treated with enzyme and heat, respectively, while the last section was not pre-treated. In seven cases the sensitivity of histochemical staining (HSM), IHC and bacteriological culture were compared. Heating of the sections in a microwave oven was the most effective method in the case of almost all pathogens used. Strong or moderate positive reactions were observed for 26 bacterial species, all fungal and 2 protozoal species, while weak reactions occurred for 2 bacterial and 1 protozoal species. Only 4 protozoal and 12 bacterial species, including Leptospira and all the five Mycoplasma species examined, showed no reaction in this test. IHC had almost the same sensitivity as bacteriological culture and was more sensitive than HSM. The IHC method presented here should be preferred to HSM as a general screening tool in cases where pathological lesions suspicious for infections are evident and no microorganism can be cultured in vitro or only formalin-fixed tissue samples are available for the laboratory examination.

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Authors: Levente Szeredi, Ferenc Rausch, Zsófia Szeleczky and Szilárd Jánosi

The disease induced by Bibersteinia trehalosi usually occurs in lambs. It is triggered by certain stress factors and often emerges in the form of severe outbreaks. In adult sheep, only sporadic cases have been reported so far. This paper reports a B. trehalosi-induced high-mortality case occurring only in adult sheep. Seventy out of 628 adult sheep (11%) died in the affected pen during the six days of the outbreak. None of the 146 lambs kept in the neighbouring pen showed any clinical signs during that period. Several preceding events (shearing, vaccination and antiparasitic treatment) can be regarded as factors predisposing to the disease. Five adult sheep (4 females and 1 male) were sent for laboratory examination. Clinical, gross pathological, histological and bacteriological examinations revealed results corresponding to those reported previously in lambs that had died of a B. trehalosi-induced septicaemia.

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Authors: Levente Szeredi, Ádám Dán, Péter Malik, Szilárd Jánosi and Ákos Hornyák

Abstract

An epizootic caused by a new orthobunyavirus called Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was recognised in European ruminants in 2011 and 2012. The re-emergence of the infection was reported in several countries in the subsequent years. Although the main clinical sign of SBV infection is abortion, the impact of SBV in natural cases of abortion in domestic ruminants had not been systematically examined before this study. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of SBV infection and to compare it to the importance of other causes of abortion by examining 537 natural cases of abortion that had occurred between 2011 and 2017 in Hungary. The cause of abortion was determined in 165 (31%) cases. An infectious cause was proved in 88 (16%) cases. SBV infection was found only in a total of four cases (0.8%) using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Three of them proved to be inapparent SBV infection, and one case was attributed to SBV-induced abortion by detecting non-purulent encephalitis and SBV nucleoprotein by immunohistochemistry in a brain tissue sample. According to the results, SBV played a minor role in natural cases of domestic ruminant abortion in Hungary during the 7-year period following the first SBV outbreak in 2011.

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Authors: Levente Szeredi, Ádám Dán, Péter Malik, Szilárd Jánosi and Ákos Hornyák

Abstract

An epizootic caused by a new orthobunyavirus called Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was recognised in European ruminants in 2011 and 2012. The re-emergence of the infection was reported in several countries in the subsequent years. Although the main clinical sign of SBV infection is abortion, the impact of SBV in natural cases of abortion in domestic ruminants had not been systematically examined before this study. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of SBV infection and to compare it to the importance of other causes of abortion by examining 537 natural cases of abortion that had occurred between 2011 and 2017 in Hungary. The cause of abortion was determined in 165 (31%) cases. An infectious cause was proved in 88 (16%) cases. SBV infection was found only in a total of four cases (0.8%) using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Three of them proved to be inapparent SBV infection, and one case was attributed to SBV-induced abortion by detecting non-purulent encephalitis and SBV nucleoprotein by immunohistochemistry in a brain tissue sample. According to the results, SBV played a minor role in natural cases of domestic ruminant abortion in Hungary during the 7-year period following the first SBV outbreak in 2011.

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Authors: Barbara Ujvári, Levente Szeredi, László Pertl, Gergely Tóth, Károly Erdélyi, Szilárd Jánosi, Tamás Molnár and Tibor Magyar

This is the first report of Pasteurella multocida type B in Hungarian pigs. This disease was observed in backyard-raised pigs in three households within a small area. Neither the source of the infection nor the epidemiological connection between any of the premises could be determined. The most consistent lesion was dark red discolouration of the skin of the ventral neck and brisket, with accompanying oedema and haemorrhages. The morbidity was low and lethality relatively high, with three dead (50%) and two euthanised (33%) out of six affected animals. A total of three isolates of P. multocida (P55, P56 and P57) were cultured from these cases and examined in detail. These were identified as P. multocida ssp. multocida biovar 3. All were toxA negative and belonged to serotype B:2. Multilocus sequence typing was used to assign these to a new sequence type (ST61) that is closely related to other haemorrhagic septicaemia causing strains of P. multocida regardless of the host. M13 polymerase chain reaction and virulence-associated gene typing also show that type B strains form a highly homogeneous, distinct phylogenic group within P. multocida.

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Authors: Zsuzsa Kreizinger, Kinga Mária Sulyok, László Makrai, Zsuzsanna Rónai, László Fodor, Szilárd Jánosi and Miklós Gyuranecz

The susceptibility of 29 Bacillus anthracis strains, collected in Hungary between 1933 and 2014, was tested to 10 antibiotics with commercially available minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test strips. All strains were susceptible to amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doxycycline, gentamicin, penicillin, rifampicin, and vancomycin. Intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin and cefotaxime was detected in 17.2% (5/29) and 58.6% (17/29) of the strains, respectively. Correlations were not observed between the isolation date, location, host species, genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility profile of strains.

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Authors: Boglárka Sellyei, Zsuzsanna Rónai, Szilárd Jánosi and László Makrai

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the leading cause of significant economic losses in the intensive beef industry worldwide. Beside numerous risk factors Pasteurella multocida, which is regarded as a secondary pathogen, may play a role in the development of the disease. Previous studies of strains from swine pneumonia revealed that there are a few clones associated with clinical disease, suggesting that some strains may be more virulent than others. This linkage may be true in the BRD, however composition of P. multocida populations in the herds are slightly characterized. Thus, we decided to perform phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of strains isolated from calves with respiratory infection at 31 different herds in Hungary. The results demonstrated the presence of two dominant strain types. At the identical taxonomic background (P. multocida subsp. multocida) with slight phenotypic variability they could be separated by trehalose fermentation capacity, α-glucosidase activity and molecular fingerprint patterns of ERIC- and M13-PCR. Independent prevalence and geographical origin of the strain types may refer to their significance in the illness, but their comparison with strains isolated from healthy individuals is taken into consideration.

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Authors: Levente Szeredi, Miklós Tenk, Szilárd Jánosi, Vilmos Pálfi, Helmut Hotzel, Konrad Sachse, Andreas Pospischil, Miklós Bozsó, Róbert Glávits and Tamás Molnár

Cases of equine abortion and perinatal foal losses were investigated in Hungary during a three-year period (1998–2000). Samples from aborted equine fetuses and newborn foals (total n = 96) were examined using bacteriological, virological, pathological, immunohistochemical (IHC), molecular biological and serological methods. The cause of abortion and perinatal foal loss was identified in 67/96 cases (70%); viral infection was found in 22 (23%), viral and bacterial coinfection in 1 (1%), bacterial infection in 23 (24%), protozoan infection in 1 (1%) and fungal infection in 2 cases (2%). Morphological lesions suggestive of infection were recorded in 2 (2%) and non-infectious causes in 16 cases (17%).

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