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The first-person narrator of Prévost abbé's "Histoire d'une Grecque moderne" tells the story of his relationship with a beautiful Greek woman. The relation starts with a dialogue realized in a seraglio and this type of reported communication will dominate the whole narration. Most of these dialogues take place as part of a persuasion process: the actors try to persuade each other, and on his turn, the narrator tries to persuade the reader. The letter - the written communication par excellence - substitutes the dialogue between the actors only once, at a crucial moment of the story. This situation emphasizes one of the central problems raised by the novel: the failure of self-expression and mutual understanding.

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Az oktatás, a képzés a modern társadalmak mozgatórugója; a tudás átadását szolgálják, újratermelik az emberi tőkét, és a gazdaság hajtóerejét jelentik. Célkitűzés: Pályaválasztási motiváció összehasonlító vizsgálata diplomásápoló-hallgatók és pedagógushallgatók körében. Módszer: A vizsgálat Magyarországon diplomásápoló-hallgatók és pedagógusképzésben részt vevő hallgatók körében történt. A mintában 783 hallgató vett részt. Eredmények: Az ápolóhivatás és pedagógushivatás kiválasztásában elsődlegesek az altruisztikus motivációk és a választott hivatás humán irányultsága. A nemek szerinti válaszokban a női válaszadók esetében magasabb értéket kaptunk az „Embereken való segítés” esetében, mint a férfiak válaszaiban. A diplomásápoló-hallgatókra nagyobb arányban jellemző a gyermekkorban történő pályaválasztás. A későbbi életszakaszban a pályaválasztás a pedagógushallgatók jellemzője. Következtetések: A felgyorsult gazdasági változások következtében vagy a hivatással való elégedetlenség miatt számolnunk kell azzal, hogy a fiatal korban megszerzett képesítés nem örök életre szól, az emberek nagy része élete során többször kényszerülhet arra, hogy foglalkozást váltson. A munkaerő-piaci kereslet és képzés összehangolásában az oktatásban és szakképzésben részt vevő szakembereknek kitüntetett szerepe van.

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The impact of goal attainment and goal importance on satisfaction with life – a polynomial regression and response surface analysis

A célok fontosságának és megvalósulásának hatása az élettel való elégedettségre – Polynomiális regresszió analízis

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Ágnes Tóth
Barbara Wisse
, and
Klára Faragó


Most people want to be happy in their lives and actively try to achieve some degree of contentment. Previous studies have shown that pursuing goals can increase peoples’ well-being and that in order to understand the role of goals in well-being, it is important to differentiate between the importance and the attainment of both extrinsic and intrinsic goals. Yet, the issue of how the congruence between goal importance on the one hand and goal attainment on the other affects well-being has rarely been addressed.


We investigated if well-being is a function of goal pursuit, or more precisely, if the extent to which people are satisfied with their lives is a result of their success in achieving goals that are relatively important to them. We expected that goal attainment would be a stronger predictor of well-being than goal importance. We also expected that the congruence between intrinsic goal attainment and importance would be positively related to subjective well-being. In addition, we explored whether the congruence between extrinsic goal attainment and importance would be negatively or positively associated with subjective well-being.


A survey of 149 Hungarian adults was conducted (75% female). To test our hypotheses we used bivariate polynomial regression and response surface analysis. This tool is ideal to measure the joint effect of two predictor variables on a third variable, such as the goal importance and goal attainment on well-being.


Intrinsic goal attainment is positively related to well-being (B = .77, p = .04), while goal importance has no such effect. We also found that the congruence between intrinsic goal importance and goal attainment is positively related to well-being (a1 = 1.29, p = .04). The polynomial regression with well-being as the dependent variable and extrinsic goal attainment and importance as the predictor variables showed that whereas extrinsic goal importance (B = –.32, p = .02) has a negative relationship with well-being, goal attainment (B = .51, p = .007) has a positive one. Moreover, we found that well-being is higher when extrinsic goal attainment is higher than extrinsic goal importance (a3 = –.84, p = .005) and that well-being increases more sharply to the extent that the degree of discrepancy increases (a4 = –.41, p = .03).


Based on our results it seems that the congruence between intrinsic goal attainment and goal importance enhances our well-being. While valuing extrinsic goals does not seem to increase happiness, attaining those goals does so.

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The aim of this paper is to examine a group of brooches whose numbers have been increasing in recent years to determine their origins, their relationship to each other and their role in the fine metalwork, goldsmith practice of the period. These brooches and pairs of brooches were found in ten sites scattered across a large geographic area (Szarvas, La-Rue-Saint-Pierre, Bernhardsthal, Uppåkra, Narona, Hemmingen, 'Italy', Collegno, Domoszló, Nagyvárad). The artefacts share common features that can aid in determining the areas of production for objects within the group. We can confidently date them to the second half of the 5th and the early 6th centuries A.D. and examine their role in the development of the so-called Thuringian-type brooches. Furthermore, they allow us to investigate changes in female attire and shed light on the relationships between the Middle Danube region and Southern Sweden (Skåne).

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The pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus — a quarantine pest — has been monitored since 2003 in Hungary. The present paper gives a short review of the monitoring/survey system and the results obtained.

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The Kiskunhalas-NE (KIHA-NE) fractured hydrocarbon reservoir is part of the structurally rather complex crystalline basement of the Great Hungarian Plain. In the course of petrologic and thermometric examinations various rock types of the investigated area have been classified and characterized. There are four basic lithological units in the area. In the lowest structural position orthogneiss is common, which according to its petrographic features is assumed to be identical to the orthogneiss body of the adjacent Jánoshalma (JH) basement high (metamorphic peak temperature T < 580 °C according to Zachar and M. Tóth 2004). The next rock unit upward is the highly mylonitized variety of the orthogneiss with textural features suggesting deformation in an extensional stress regime. In the higher section of the mylonite zone graphitic gneiss mylonite is characteristic, with a peak metamorphic T of 410±45 °C. The lithology in the shallowest position of the area is a graphitic carbonate phyllite, with a T of 375 ± 15 °C. Estimation of the deformation temperature for both mylonitic rocks results in approximately Tdef ∼ 455 °C. All data together suggest that between the top (graphitic carbonate phyllite) and the bottom (orthogneiss) of the ideal rock column there is about 200 °C peak metamorphic temperature deviation. The two extreme metamorphic blocks probably became juxtaposed along an extensional fault zone in the basement at approximately 15 km depth.

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Society and Economy
Ágnes Hofmeister Tóth
Léna Simányi

The nature and structure of values is a topic of continuous interest in marketing. Contemporary marketers recognised that values are criteria for sorting out the options and for implementing a certain mode of behaviour rather than others. Values are learned during the purely human process of socialisation, along with cultural classifications of reality and cultural code of behaviour.  According to Rokeach (1973) some values are relatively permanent, but others undergo continuous change. In Hungary, the transformation from the socialist system to market economy has opened the country to the West and triggered major changes: political and consumer freedom, privatisation and an increased level of information. The citizens of Hungary were to cope with the new economic system, adopt the norms and the logic of market economy, but they were, however, subject to the legacy of the old system and to the trauma of its displacement. The values in transition are of particular interest to marketing professionals because they often create or change the size of market segments for products or cause changes through advertising, product range or service offering. The objectives of this paper is first to give an overview of the literature on values research and their measurement, with special attention given to theories of values in transition, second to demonstrate the main results of our longitudinal research into changing values, and finally to present our attempt to develop a new instrument for monitoring and tracking the changes in consumer values, which, in turn, affect consumer attitudes and behaviour.

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Az orvosi és ápolói hivatást gyakorló személyeknek számos problémával kell szembesülniük: magas munkahelyi elvárások, nem kielégítő munkakörülmények, a hivatást terhelő pszichés nehézségek, sokirányú szerepkötelezettségek. Jelen tanulmányunk hallgatónők, valamint végzett orvosnők és diplomás ápolónők szubjektív egészségi állapotát, pszichoszomatikus tüneteit vizsgálja, összefüggésben egészségmagatartásukkal, életmódjukkal. Módszer: keresztmetszeti vizsgálatainkat egészségügyi felsőoktatásban tanuló diplomás ápoló- (N = 226) és orvostanhallgatónők (N = 117) körében, valamint fekvőbeteg-ellátásban dolgozó diplomás ápolónők és orvosnők (N = 409) körében készítettük. Eredmények: megközelítőleg a dolgozók 60%-a legalább egy egészségi problémát jelölt meg. A szubjektív alapú egészségi állapot meghatározás statisztikai összefüggést mutatott a pszichoszomatikus tünetekkel (p<0,001), a pesszimista jövőképpel (p<0,001), a jelenlegi partnerkapcsolat miatt megélt problémákkal (p<0,001), a fizikai aktivitással (p<0,001). Megközelítőleg 40%-uk (a hallgatói felmérésben 47%) sportol hetente legalább egyszer vagy annál gyakrabban. A dohányzók aránya 16,7% (a hallgatói felmérésekben 22,9%) volt. Következtetések: eredményeink alapján megállapítható, hogy az egészségügyi felsőoktatásban tanuló hallgatónők és a magyar egészségügyi viszonyok között dolgozók számára az egészség nem jelenik meg számottevő értékként, egészségmegőrző magatartásuk kifejezetten alacsony szintű. Egészségmegőrző társadalmi szerepük hatékonysága egyértelműen megkérdőjelezhető.

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This article provides a comprehensive review of the literature on the theoretical aspects of sustainable consumption. The conditions for consumers’ social responsibility and the formation of environmentally conscious behavior patterns will also be discussed, along with possible methods for motivating behavioral changes. The authors have completed a primary research study with the purpose of surveying environmentally conscious consumption patterns in Hungary. They also examined how the provision of appropriate information and the raising of awareness might encourage sustainable consumption. According to their findings, the respondents’ knowledge on environmentally conscious behavior was rather limited, and reinforcement was needed in identifying appropriate activity alternatives. This paper provides a summary of the qualitative research phase which employed in-depth interviews, logging and focus groups. The consecutive application of these methods enabled the authors to keep track of the process and the consequences of raising awareness.

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