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  • Author or Editor: T Sakurai x
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Abstract  

The phase transitions of α,α-trehalose dihydrate (T h) were investigated by either differential thermal analysis (DTA) with an in-house apparatus of variable-pressure type equipped with an open sample holder or commercially available TG (thermal gravimetry)-DTA apparatus for comparison under the same experimental conditions as to the heating rate (2°C min−1), the type of pan (open), and the particle size of T h (63 μm). The former DTA measurements were carried out under five different total pressures, 101, 75, 61, 48 and 35 kPa, which provided quite helpful information necessary for confirmative assignments of the endothermic peaks due to either melting or dehydration of T h. The usage of largely different amount of T h, 126 and 14 mg for the DTA and TG-DTA measurements respectively, led to their different DTA traces, showing that there were largely different extents of the influence by the measured sample surface exposed to the surrounding atmosphere on its dehydration behavior. In addition the high thermal sensitivity achieved with such mass of T h gave rise to an interesting discovery of an unidentified thermal event at 92°C prior to either melting or dehydration of T h.

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Authors: T. Mitsugashira, Y. Koma, S. Hirai, I. Okada, N. Kurashima and H. Sakurai

Abstract  

Highly sensitive neutron activation analysis of uranium and thorium in high quality silica and aluminium has been investigated using the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR), having a thermal neutron flux higher than 1014 n/cm2/s. In order to determine ultra-low contents of uranium and thorium,239Np and233Pa as activation products were separated by using anion exchange and LaF3 coprecipitation methods. As a result, a number of interfering radioactive isotopes containing double neutron capture product such as183Ta were removed completely from the isolated239Np and233Pa fraction and the detection limits for uranium and thorium were found to be 2·10–12 g and 4·10–13 g, respectively.

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Authors: H. Sakurai, M. Fukuda, Y. Hayashibe, Y. Sayama, K. Masumoto and T. Ohtsuki

Abstract  

A highly sensitive determination of fluorine in standard rocks by photon activation using the19F(,n)18F reaction combined with pyrohydrolysis for the separation of18F has been reported. The irradiation energy was operated at 20 MeV to avoid the interference from Na, because Na is one of the major element in rocks and18F is also produced from Na via23Na(,n)18F reaction above its threshold energy, 20.9 MeV. After irradiation, fluorine was extracted by pyrohydrolysis and separated as LaF3 precipitate. It was ascertained that the average recovery of fluorine in standard rocks was about 90% and the precipitate was of high radiochemical purity. This method was applied to the analysis of ten GSJ rock reference samples and two USGS standard rocks issued by the Geological Survey of Japan and the United States Geological Survey, respectively. The detection limit of this method was 0.02 g/g, and the results obtained by this method were in good agreement with the recommended values. This method was easily applied to the determination of a few ppm level of fluorine in rock samples, such as ultrabasic rock and feldspar.

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We used the model of eccentric contraction of the hindlimb muscle by Ochi et al. to examine the role of eccentric contraction in muscle plasticity. This model aims to focus on stimulated skeletal muscle responses by measuring tissue weights and tracing the quantities of αB-crystallin and tubulin. The medial gastrocnemius muscle (GCM) responded to electrically induced eccentric contraction (EIEC) with significant increases in tissue weight (p < 0.01) and the ratio of tissue weight to body weight (p < 0.05); however, there was a decrease in soleus muscle weight after EIEC. EIEC in the GCM caused contractile-induced sustenance of the traced proteins, but the soleus muscle exhibited a remarkable decrease in α-tubulin and a 19% decrease in αB-crystallin. EIEC caused fast-to-slow myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform type-oriented shift within both the GCM and soleus muscle. These results have shown that different MHC isoform type-expressing slow and fast muscles commonly undergo fast-to-slow type MHC isoform transformation. This suggests that different levels of EIEC affected each of the slow and fast muscles to induce different quantitative changes in the expression of αB-crystallin and α-tubulin.

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Authors: M. Takagaki, K. Ono, S-I. Masunaga, Y. Kinashi, Y. Sakurai, T. Kobayashi, S-I. Miyatake and N. Hashimoto

Abstract  

Quantitative determination of ppb-order 10B was carried out in a small number of cultured tumor cells by particle tracks by the 10B(n,)7Li reactions using solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) for boron neutron capture therapy research. The detection limit of 10B concentration in tumor cells is less than 1·10-3 ppm under our experimental conditions which permits the quantitative determination of 10B in a small number of boronated tumor cells (105/ml = ca. 0.1 mg). Boron quantities in tumor cells determined were well compatible with the tumor cell killing effects of boron neutron capture therapy.

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