To solve a geophysical inverse problem means applying measurements to determine the parameters of the selected model. The inverse problem is formulated as the Bayesian inference. The Gaussian probability density functions are applied in the Bayes's equation. The CHAMP satellite gravity data are determined at the altitude of 400 km altitude over the South part of the Pannonian Basin. The model of interpretation is the right vertical cylinder. The parameters of the model are obtained from the minimum problem solved by the Simplex method.
We compared the cardiovascular responses in 10 patients with established gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (Group 1) and 10 control subjects (Group 2) during oesophageal saline and 0.1 mol/l hydrochloric acid instillation. Indices of heart rate and blood pressure variability and baroreflex gain (derived from linear spontaneous sequences and cross spectral analysis) were calculated. In Group 1 the standard deviation of RR intervals (SDRR: 46 ms vs. 51 ms, p=0.030) and the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD: 24 ms vs. 26 ms, p=0.027) were significantly lower during acid infusions, than during saline. We found no significant difference in minimum, maximum and mean RR intervals and systolic blood pressures and in the percentage of RR intervals, which differed from adjacent cycles by more than 50 ms (PNN50). The power spectra of RR intervals in the high frequency band tended to be lower during acid infusion (p=0.055). There was no significant difference in blood pressure spectra, neither in low nor in high frequency band. In Group 2 there was no significant difference between any parameters measured during acid and saline. The baroreflex gain was not changed during the studied conditions in any group.
In this observational study we addressed accelerated arteriosclerosis (AS) in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) on hemodialysis (HD) by measuring vascular stiffness (VS) parameters and attempted to relate them to pro-inflammatory and protective factors.
96 consecutive patients receiving regular HD were included. 20 adult patients without major renal, cardiovascular or metabolic morbidities served as controls.
AS parameters (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity – PWV, aortic augmentation index – Aix) were measured by using applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor, AtCor Medical, Sidney). In addition to routine laboratory tests 25(OH) vitamin D3 (vitamin D3) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were quantified by immunometric assay; whereas fetuin-A, α-Klotho, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were determined by ELISA.
Pro-inflammatory biomarkers (hsCRP, TNF-α and TGF-β1) were markedly elevated (P < 0.01), while anti-inflammatory factors (fetuin-A: P < 0.05, α-Klotho: P < 0.01, vitamin D3: P < 0.01) significantly depressed in HD patients when compared to controls. PWV was significantly affected only by total cholesterol, fetuin-A and dialysis time. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that several clinical and laboratory parameters were associated with pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers rather than VS. The impact of baseline clinical and biochemical variables on outcome measures were also analyzed after three-year follow-up, and it was demonstrated that low levels of vitamin D, α-Klotho protein and fetuin-A were related to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, whereas all-cause mortality was associated with elevated hsCRP and depressed vitamin D.
Our results provide additional information on the pathomechanism of accelerated AS in patients with CRF, and documented direct influence of pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers on major outcome measures.