Destructive and non-destructive procedures have been developed for the determination of titanium by photon activation analysis.
The non-destructive analyses with an internal standard method are performed on niobium and tantalum oxides while destructive
determinations, including non-isotope addition and radiochemical separation, are applied to yttrium oxide samples.
Americium and plutonium concentrations in food samples and human tissue samples were determined using alpha-ray spectrometry.Food samples, representative of the average dietar intake over a period of 30d in Japan, were pruchased in Akita during 1985 and 1986. The food was divided into six groups: cereals, vegetable, fruits/beans, seaweeds, fish/shellfish, and meats/eggs/milk. Most of the. total ingestion of both Pu and Am was contributed by seaseed and fish/shellfish. The concentration of Am in the other food groups was low.A compoarison of the measured241Am/239+240Pu ratio in human liver with the predicted value of the ICRP-30 or ICRP-48 model showed that the half-life of Am in the liver is approximately 2–10y. The human tissue samples were obtained from subjects who died in Akita and Niigata Prefectures in northern Japan during 1981–1984. The median concentration of241Am was 1.4 mBq/kg-wet in the stemum (n=11), 3.4 mBq/kg-wet in the liver (n=19), and 0.5 mBq/kg-wet in the lung (n=15). The ratio of241Am/239+240Pu was 0.34 in the sternum, 0.12 in the liver, and 0.14 in the lung.
The paper describes the recent plutonium measurements on tissues taken at human autopsy on foodstuffs collected in northern Japan. Estimates of plutonium concentrations are made using the ICRP 30 metabolic model and is compared with the results of our measurements.
We investigated successfully the uptake of the radionuclides with short half-lives, such as 24Na, 28Mg, 43K and 47Ca, and the effect of stable Ca on their uptake in carrot (Daucas carotacv. U.S. harumakigosun) by the multitracer technique. These radionuclides were produced by a fragmentation reaction of Ti in a 135 MeV/nucleon 12C beam accelerated by the RIKEN Ring Cyclotron. This study shows that these radionuclides in a multitracer can be utilized in environmental research.
It was unknown whether ultrasound-measured forearm muscle thickness was impacted by pronation of the forearm. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of forearm pronation on two forearm muscle thicknesses (MT-ulna and MT-radius).
Participants and Methods
Fourteen healthy children and adolescents sat on a chair with their right arm comfortably on a table, and their hands were fixed to the board with elastic bands. The probe was placed perpendicularly over the forearm, and the angle of the board was then pronated in 5° increments from −10° to 30°. The average value of the two measures at each angle was used.
There was evidence that MT-ulna differed across measurement sites (F = 51.086, P < 0.001). For example, the values of the MT-ulna were 2.58 (SD 0.40) cm in standard position (0°), 2.56 (SD 0.41) in −10°, 2.62 (SD 0.41) in 10°, 2.65 (SD 0.42) in 20°, and 2.71 (SD 0.43) in 30°. Follow-up tests found that all sites differed from each other except for −10° and −5° (P = 0.155) and 10° and 15° (P = 0.075). There was also evidence that the MT-radius differed across measurement sites (F = 22.07, P < 0.001). Follow-up tests found that many but not all sites differed from each other.
Our results suggest that MT-ulna increases and MT-radius decreases due to forearm pronation from the standard position (0°). When determining the forearm position using the 95% limits of agreement, we recommend the forearm position within ±5° of the standard forearm position when measuring forearm MT.
Low-intensity resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (BFR) has been shown to induce a prominent increase in muscle activation in response to muscle fatigue. However, the magnitude of muscle fatigue between continuous (Con-BFR) and intermittent BFR (Int-BFR, BFR only during exercise) is currently unknown. We examined the effect of Con-BFR or Int-BFR on muscle activation during exercise. Unilateral arm curl exercise (20% of one-repetition maximum, four sets, 30 sec rest period between sets) was performed without (CON) or with Con-BFR or Int-BFR. During BFR conditions, the cuff was inflated to 160 mmHg on the proximal region of testing arm. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the biceps brachii muscle, and integrated EMG (iEMG) was analyzed. During the exercise, iEMG increased progressively in Con-BFR and Int-BFR and both conditions were greater (p < 0.05) than CON at the 3rd and 4th set. However, there were no differences (p > 0.05) in iEMG between Con-BFR and Int-BFR during exercise (∼2.45 and ∼2.40 times, respectively). Thus, the magnitude of increase in muscle activation may be similar between Con-BFR and Int-BFR when BFR exercise was performed at a high level of cuff pressure intensity.
Cycle training is widely performed as a major part of any exercise program seeking to improve aerobic capacity and cardiovascular health. However, the effect of cycle training on muscle size and strength gain still requires further insight, even though it is known that professional cyclists display larger muscle size compared to controls. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the effects of cycle training on muscle size and strength of the lower extremity and the possible mechanisms for increasing muscle size with cycle training. It is plausible that cycle training requires a longer period to significantly increase muscle size compared to typical resistance training due to a much slower hypertrophy rate. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy similarly between young and older age groups, while strength gain seems to favor older adults, which suggests that the probability for improving in muscle quality appears to be higher in older adults compared to young adults. For young adults, higher-intensity intermittent cycling may be required to achieve strength gains. It also appears that muscle hypertrophy induced by cycle training results from the positive changes in muscle protein net balance.
The concentration of232Th,230Th and228Th in various human tissues of Japanese subjects obtained at autopsies are reported. The tissue samples were weighed, spiked with234Th tracer and ashed by acid. The solution was dried on a hot-plate. Separation of thorium radionuclides was accomplished through cation-exchange resin chromatography and electrodeposition. The concentrations of thorium isotopes were measured by -spectrometry. Thorium-232 and230Th concentrations were found to be highest in lung, followed by bone. The maximum concentration of228Th was in bone. The lowest concentrations of thorium isotopes were in muscle.
Radioactive fallout constitutes the major source of contamination of the environment with fission products. Our primary interest was in selected fission products, such as 131I, 89Sr, 90Sr, and 137Cs, and neutron activation products, such as 3H and 14C. Plutonium-239,240, 241Am and 90Tc are generated from nuclear tests, and they are important by-products of nuclear industries. Polonium-210, 210Pb and 232Th, 230Th and 228Th occur widely in nature. These radionuclides enter the human body through inhalation and the ingestion through food and water. These nuclides may cause radiation doses to certain organs of the body. Assessment of the resulting health hazards is an essential public health activity, which demands reliable techniques for the assay of the various radionuclides in man and his environment. In this paper, we present the accumulation of radionuclides from man-made sources and primordial radionuclides in various tissues of the Japanese population. The studies were performed at the Department of Public Health, Akita University School of Medicine, during the periods from 1973 to 1995.