Destructive and non-destructive procedures have been developed for the determination of titanium by photon activation analysis.
The non-destructive analyses with an internal standard method are performed on niobium and tantalum oxides while destructive
determinations, including non-isotope addition and radiochemical separation, are applied to yttrium oxide samples.
The paper describes the recent plutonium measurements on tissues taken at human autopsy on foodstuffs collected in northern Japan. Estimates of plutonium concentrations are made using the ICRP 30 metabolic model and is compared with the results of our measurements.
Americium and plutonium concentrations in food samples and human tissue samples were determined using alpha-ray spectrometry.Food samples, representative of the average dietar intake over a period of 30d in Japan, were pruchased in Akita during 1985 and 1986. The food was divided into six groups: cereals, vegetable, fruits/beans, seaweeds, fish/shellfish, and meats/eggs/milk. Most of the. total ingestion of both Pu and Am was contributed by seaseed and fish/shellfish. The concentration of Am in the other food groups was low.A compoarison of the measured241Am/239+240Pu ratio in human liver with the predicted value of the ICRP-30 or ICRP-48 model showed that the half-life of Am in the liver is approximately 2–10y. The human tissue samples were obtained from subjects who died in Akita and Niigata Prefectures in northern Japan during 1981–1984. The median concentration of241Am was 1.4 mBq/kg-wet in the stemum (n=11), 3.4 mBq/kg-wet in the liver (n=19), and 0.5 mBq/kg-wet in the lung (n=15). The ratio of241Am/239+240Pu was 0.34 in the sternum, 0.12 in the liver, and 0.14 in the lung.
We investigated successfully the uptake of the radionuclides with short half-lives, such as 24Na, 28Mg, 43K and 47Ca, and the effect of stable Ca on their uptake in carrot (Daucas carotacv. U.S. harumakigosun) by the multitracer technique. These radionuclides were produced by a fragmentation reaction of Ti in a 135 MeV/nucleon 12C beam accelerated by the RIKEN Ring Cyclotron. This study shows that these radionuclides in a multitracer can be utilized in environmental research.
Authors:T. Furuki, R. Abe, H. Kawaji, T. Atake and M. Sakurai
The phase transitions of α,α-trehalose dihydrate (Th) were investigated by either differential thermal analysis (DTA) with an in-house apparatus of variable-pressure type equipped
with an open sample holder or commercially available TG (thermal gravimetry)-DTA apparatus for comparison under the same experimental
conditions as to the heating rate (2°C min−1), the type of pan (open), and the particle size of Th (63 μm). The former DTA measurements were carried out under five different total pressures, 101, 75, 61, 48 and 35 kPa, which
provided quite helpful information necessary for confirmative assignments of the endothermic peaks due to either melting or
dehydration of Th. The usage of largely different amount of Th, 126 and 14 mg for the DTA and TG-DTA measurements respectively, led to their different DTA traces, showing that there were
largely different extents of the influence by the measured sample surface exposed to the surrounding atmosphere on its dehydration
behavior. In addition the high thermal sensitivity achieved with such mass of Th gave rise to an interesting discovery of an unidentified thermal event at 92°C prior to either melting or dehydration of
Authors:Hayao Ozaki, J. Loenneke, R. Thiebaud and T. Abe
Cycle training is widely performed as a major part of any exercise program seeking to improve aerobic capacity and cardiovascular health. However, the effect of cycle training on muscle size and strength gain still requires further insight, even though it is known that professional cyclists display larger muscle size compared to controls. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the effects of cycle training on muscle size and strength of the lower extremity and the possible mechanisms for increasing muscle size with cycle training. It is plausible that cycle training requires a longer period to significantly increase muscle size compared to typical resistance training due to a much slower hypertrophy rate. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy similarly between young and older age groups, while strength gain seems to favor older adults, which suggests that the probability for improving in muscle quality appears to be higher in older adults compared to young adults. For young adults, higher-intensity intermittent cycling may be required to achieve strength gains. It also appears that muscle hypertrophy induced by cycle training results from the positive changes in muscle protein net balance.
Authors:D Kim, JP Loenneke, RS Thiebaud, T Abe and MG Bemben
The aim was to compare the acute effects of work matched high intensity (75% peak aerobic capacity) aerobic exercise to low intensity (40% peak aerobic capacity) aerobic exercise with different degrees of blood flow restriction (BFR) [40% estimated arterial occlusion (40 BFR) and 60% estimated arterial occlusion (60 BFR)] on variables previously hypothesized to be important for muscle adaptation. There were no meaningful changes in torque. Anterior thigh muscle thickness was increased from baseline with high intensity cycling and 40 BFR (~2 mm increase, p ≤ 0.008). A significant increase in lactate occurred in all exercise conditions but was greatest with high intensity cycling (~5.4 mmol/L increase). Muscle activation was significantly higher with high intensity cycling compared to low intensity cycling with BFR, regardless of pressure (~25% vs. ~12% MVC). Mean power frequency was not different between conditions but did increase from the first 5 minutes of exercise to the last 5 minutes (93% vs. 101%, p < 0.001). Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were higher with high intensity cycling but discomfort was similar between conditions. We wish to suggest that high intensity cycling produces greater muscular stress than that observed with work matched low intensity cycling in combination with BFR.
Authors:Tomohiro Yasuda, J. Loenneke, R. Ogasawara and T. Abe
Low-intensity resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (BFR) has been shown to induce a prominent increase in muscle activation in response to muscle fatigue. However, the magnitude of muscle fatigue between continuous (Con-BFR) and intermittent BFR (Int-BFR, BFR only during exercise) is currently unknown. We examined the effect of Con-BFR or Int-BFR on muscle activation during exercise. Unilateral arm curl exercise (20% of one-repetition maximum, four sets, 30 sec rest period between sets) was performed without (CON) or with Con-BFR or Int-BFR. During BFR conditions, the cuff was inflated to 160 mmHg on the proximal region of testing arm. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the biceps brachii muscle, and integrated EMG (iEMG) was analyzed. During the exercise, iEMG increased progressively in Con-BFR and Int-BFR and both conditions were greater (p < 0.05) than CON at the 3rd and 4th set. However, there were no differences (p > 0.05) in iEMG between Con-BFR and Int-BFR during exercise (∼2.45 and ∼2.40 times, respectively). Thus, the magnitude of increase in muscle activation may be similar between Con-BFR and Int-BFR when BFR exercise was performed at a high level of cuff pressure intensity.
Authors:Y. Takizawa, S. Hisamatsu, T. Abe and J. Yamashita
Radioactive fallout constitutes the major source of contamination of the environment with fission products. Our primary interest was in selected fission products, such as 131I, 89Sr, 90Sr, and 137Cs, and neutron activation products, such as 3H and 14C. Plutonium-239,240, 241Am and 90Tc are generated from nuclear tests, and they are important by-products of nuclear industries. Polonium-210, 210Pb and 232Th, 230Th and 228Th occur widely in nature. These radionuclides enter the human body through inhalation and the ingestion through food and water. These nuclides may cause radiation doses to certain organs of the body. Assessment of the resulting health hazards is an essential public health activity, which demands reliable techniques for the assay of the various radionuclides in man and his environment. In this paper, we present the accumulation of radionuclides from man-made sources and primordial radionuclides in various tissues of the Japanese population. The studies were performed at the Department of Public Health, Akita University School of Medicine, during the periods from 1973 to 1995.