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  • Author or Editor: T. Bíró x
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Die Geschichte der Intercisaer Beinwerkstätten kann in drei Perioden eingeteilt werden. In den Jahrzehnten nach der Besiedlung war vor allem das Militär Auftraggeber der Werkstätten. Die Konjunktur, die von den nach den Markomannenkriegen stationierten syrischen Militäreinheit und der mit den Truppen zusammen eintreffenden Kaufleuteschicht geschaffen bzw. ausgenutzt wurde, brachte für die Beinwerkstätten keine größere Veränderung. Im letzten Drittel des Bestehens von Intercisa weisen die Beinschnitzereien auf zunehmende balkanische Beziehungen hin.

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Summary  

There is a growing interest in the application of scientific-physical, chemical etc. methods in archaeology. This is partly due to the fact that classical archaeology, based upon the form, style, decoration of the objects has reached its limits, to obtain new result and, the integration of other disciplines into the argumentation of archaeologists is needed. The other important reason is the development and availability of methods and equipment for non-destructive analyses, ways of gathering useful information on the chemical and mineral composition, age, and state of preservation of the objects which can be useful in their scientific appraisal. PGAA is one of the techniques eminently suited for this purpose.

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The damage caused by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogynidae) (irregular galls of different sizes on the plant roots) is a general problem in greenhouses in Hungary.The effect of Trifender microbiological preparation has been investigated on the degree of damage caused by root-knot nematodes in green-house pepper. We set up our experiment in Pusztamonostor (Jászság region, Hungary) in a family farm in 2008 and 2009. We carried out preliminary evaluation (Zeck-scale; 0–10) in the precrop with symptomatic assessment. According to the preliminary evaluation, the infection showed rates of 2–3 on the average.The results of 2008 show that Trifender had no effect on the number of females, but the plant height has been increased by 12 and 15%, and yield has grown by 25–35%. But on the contrary, in 2009 the number of females was decreased by 33%, and plant height was increased by 11%.

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In the present study, changes in the infectivity and effectiveness of four Glomus mosseae strains of different origin were investigated in calcareous loamy chernozem soils treated with Cd at three levels (0, 50, 100 mg Cd kg −1 ) in a pot experiment. Frequency of infection (F%), arbuscular richness (a%) and shoot dry matter, macro-(N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg) and microelements (Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, Mo, Co) and the Cd content of the host plants were compared to determine whether there was any variability in infectivity and effectiveness between G. mosseae strains of different origin. Functional diversity was found in the infectivity and effectiveness of the studied G. mosseae strains. In Cd-treated soil, AMF inoculation was beneficial to the plant growth, P uptake and shoot Cd content of the host. However, the higher uptake of other macro- and microelements was noted for non-mycorrhizal plants compared to mycorrhizal plants. The lower shoot content of some elements did not cause nutrient deficiency in mycorrhizal plants. The present results support the hypothesis that in polluted soils, the development of mycorrhizal symbiosis has the potential for AMF to protect their hosts against Cd toxicity rather than to improve nutrient uptake.

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Dominant halophytes, such as Plantago maritima, Aster tripolium, Artemisia santonicum, Puccinellia limosa, Festuca pseudovina and Lepidium crassifolium were monitored for their colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for two vegetation periods, sampled by monthly frequency. Two saline sites (A: Apaj-puszta and Z: Zabszék) were selected for the survey due to their similar physical and chemical soil characteristics (including the salt level and salt specific anions) and the distinct site use (pasturing or not) or water regime (as drought or temporally flooded at the vicinity of the Zabszék lake).  Colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi greatly depended on the plant species and their physiological status, such as the mycotroph or non-mycotroph character. In this respect the highest mycorrhizal intensity (M%) and arbusculum richness (A%) was found on the Plantago maritima , while Puccinellia limosa was the less dependent species on mycorrhiza fungi.  A characteristic seasonal dynamism was found at both saline sites, for all sampled halophytes. A maximum mycorrhizal colonization was recorded in late spring and early summer, when there was an increased plant-physiological initiative for the helpful symbiosis (i.e. intensive vegetative and/or generative phases of the hosts).  The rate of fungal intensity in the root system (M%), and especially the arbusculum richness (A%) on the other hand was found to be dependent on the site use and the water fluctuation in the soils. A more versatile dynamism of the mycorrhizal colonization was found therefore at the vicinity of the Zabszek lake with the permanent water fluctuations. Under more drought stressed conditions an increased mycorrhizal colonization and functioning (arbusculum richness) was found, generally preceeding the high environmental stress, which was deleterious for both symbiont partners. Such mycorrhizal dynamism in the rhizosphere, however, seems to be a common strategy between the hosts and the microsymbionts in the “struggle for life” process in the Hungarian steppe.

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The relationship between some soil physical-chemical characteristics, with more focus on the types of salt-specific anions and the colonisation parameters of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were examined on the most dominant halophytes, grown at four saline soils in Hungary. At site Z (Zám) mainly the chloride, at site Ny (Nyírõlapos) mainly the sulphate ions dominated in the soil samples, while at site A (Apajpuszta) and site Zsz (Zabszék) the carbonate anions were the most frequent. A large colonisation variability of the AM fungi were found in the four saline sites and the studied halophytes. Among the affecting soil-plant factors a strong host dependency was recorded with almost no mycorrhiza colonisation on Puccinellia limosa and the highest values at the Plantago maritima and Aster tripolium . As a function of the salt-levels a relative location of the halophytes could be found at each sites. The AMF colonisation intensity (M%) and functioning, measured as arbusculum richness (A%) was reduced with the overall increasing salinity, more particularly with the total cation-content of the soils. The deleterious effect of some other abiotic factors, i.e., the very poor or rich nutrient availability and the humus accumulation tended to be also negatively correlated by the mycorrhizal parameters.

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Nutrition and lifestyle-related diseases are some of the leading morbidities among the Hungarian population. People who want to lose weight often complain that healthy diet is expensive.

Our aim was to quantify the costs of three different types of diet for a three-day period. We compared “traditional Hungarian”, low energy, and diabetic diets, considering both energy content and expenses related to lifestyle.

According to our estimation: diabetic (including medication) and ”traditional” Hungarian diets were the most expensive. Low energy diet proved to be the most cost-effective despite the extra expenditures of higher physical activity.

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One of the largest industrial disasters in Europe took place in the village of Kolontár (Hungary) on October 4th, 2010. Due to a ruptured dam more than 1 million m3 of red sludge flooded the nearby small towns along the Torna river. The spilled material containing a highly alkaline solution (>12 pH) resulted in a complex environmental disaster, requiring a multi-disciplinary approach regarding the assessment and the remediation of the site.The Károly Róbert College has developed a remote sensing protocol, which greatly assists both the domestic and international disaster management (forecast, damage surveying and control). In case of the Hungarian red sludge disaster the primary objective of the hyperspectral remote sensing mission was to estimate the environmental damage, the precise size of the polluted area, the rating of substance concentration in the sludge. For quick assessment and remediation purposes, it was deemed important to estimate the thickness of the red mud, particularly the areas where it was deposited in a thick layer. The results showed that some of the existing tools can be easily modified and implemented to get the most out of the available advanced remote sensing data.

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