The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and the Generation IV Reactor Initiative have demonstrated a lack of detailed neutron
cross sections for certain “minor” actinides. For some closed-fuel-cycle reactor designs more than 50% of reactivity will,
at some point, be derived from “minor” actinides that currently have poorly known or in some cases not measured (n,γ) and
(n,f) cross sections. Using a combination of resurrected techniques and new developments, we have made a series of targets
including highly enriched 239Pu, 240Pu, and 242Pu. Thus far, we have electrodeposited these actinide targets. The chemical purification and electodeposition techniques will
The KLP+ (“hat”) trap baited with pheromone or floral lures is a highly efficient non-sticky trap for the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica v. virgifera. We tested the suitability of this trap design for the related species, D. speciosa and D. barberi, baited with their respective lures. Both species are exotic to Europe: the former inhabits South America, and the latter occurs in some parts of North America.In screening tests performed in Brazil, several synthetic floral compounds and their combinations were found to be attractive to D. speciosa. However, the greatest effect was recorded for the previously described attractant 1,4-dimethoxybenzene. When the most active compounds in the preliminary test, 2-phenylethanol, methyl anthranilate, eugenol or benzaldehyde were added to 1,4-dimethoxybenzene, no synergistic effects were observed. When 1,4-dimethoxybenzene was formulated in three types of polyethylene (PE) dispensers in KLP+ traps, PE bag dispensers were superior to two types of PE vial dispenser, and caught hundreds of D. speciosa. Unbaited traps caught only negligible numbers. There was an interesting non-target effect. KLP+ traps with 1,4-dimethoxybenzene caught large numbers of the cornsilk fly, Euxesta eluta, which is known as a maize pest.For D. barberi, both a pheromone and a potent floral lure are already known. In tests with KLP+ traps, we found that the pheromone and floral lures can be applied together in the same trap to maximize both male and female catches.In conclusion, for early detection programs in Europe, the application of KLP+ traps baited with 1,4-dimethoxybenzene in PE bag dispensers could be recommended for D. speciosa, and KLP+ traps with dual (pheromone and floral) lures for D. barberi. In the case of D. barberi, one should note that the lures also show some attraction for D. v. virgifera, and the ratio of D. barberi vs. D. v. virgifera in the catch will be predominantly determined by the relative population densities at the given site.
The infection-induced overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in resistant plants is usually ascribed to the host. Here we tested the possible contribution of the parasite, the rice blast fungus to ROS production. Droplets of spore suspensions or water were kept on rice leaves or on a plastic. After one day, superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide were chemically assayed in drop diffusates. Similar measurements were done on diffusates of rice calli submerged in spore suspension or water. Negligible amounts of ROS were found in diffusates of plant tissues treated with water. In contrast, diffusates from tissues treated with spore suspensions had appreciable levels of ROS, usually higher in incompatible combinations than in compatible ones. However, diffusates of spores incubated on plastic produced ROS to an extent comparable to those of infected tissues. In diffusates of spores, O
was found after their germination, and H
was found after appressorium formation. Various fungal strains differed in ROS production. The results suggest that spores of the blast inoculum may contribute significantly to ROS production on rice leaves, at least, at early stages of the disease. This might be a factor of incompatibility suppressing a parasite and/or inducing defense responses of a host.