A preparative-scale synthesis of O-substituted β-D-glucopyranosides catalyzed by immobilized β -glucosidase in reverse hydrolytic reactions was attempted by using our novel reaction system. In this system the alcohols as solvents were replaced with organic solvents as diluting components. We found that not only 1,2-diacetoxyethane, but also triacetin is a suitable diluting solvent, because they can reduce the heterogeneity in the reverse hydrolytic reaction mixtures. Because of the high boiling point of the solvents, an extraction method was used for the isolation of products after reverse hydrolysis. This method resulted in higher yields (15-25%) than our original evaporation method (11-19%).
Although vitamin C is essential as an antioxidant and as a cofactor in a series of enzymatic reactions, the ability for ascorbate biosynthesis was lost in humans. Thus, horticultural products and derived fruit drinks or commercial vitamin C products are considered to be important sources for the ascorbic acid intake in the human diet. These facts underline the importance of analytical methods for ascorbic acid determination in different food products.
In our study two spectrophotometric and a fluorometric ascorbic acid determination methods have been compared with each other and with the so-called etalon HPLC method to find the best for small or middle sized food analytic laboratories with a sample number of up to several hundreds. As a result of our experiments we could establish that the OPDA-fluorometric method can be suggested for the determination of samples containing ascorbate at low concentrations. Unfortunately, the analytical properties of the OPDA method with spectrophotometric detection have been lagging far behind the others. The 2,2′-bipyridyl method could give a balanced performance for all tests. Furthermore, the results gained by this method are the closest to the results of the reference HPLC method in the case of fruit and vegetable samples.
The immobilization of enzymes has not been reported earlier on the two-dimensional crystalline bacterial cell surface (S-layer). In this study we tested S-layer isolated from Bacillus stearothermophilus PV72 for enzyme (ß-glucosidase, hexokinase and aldolase) immobilization. The carbodiimide method gave yields less than 5%. The yields of co-cross-linking method with glutaraldehyde were enhanced compared to the carbodiimide method, but the yield was higher than 10% only in the case of ß-glucosidase. Because of the fine structure of S-layer, immobilized enzymes could be removed from reaction mixtures only by centrifugation, therefore these preparations were entrapped in calcium alginate gel. The yields of entrapping procedures were between 15% and 37%. It was presumed that the new immobilized ß-glucosidase preparation could be used in a preliminary testing for flavour enrichment of wines. Efficiency of this preparation was compared to that of the immobilized ß-glucosidase on Acrylex C-100 support described earlier. We found that the immobilization of ß-glucosidase on both Acrylex C-100 support and S-layer followed by gel entrapping resulted in active enzyme preparations that could be used for flavour enrichment of wines without enhancing their protein content.
Authors:J. Gál, Cs. Jakab, B. Balogh, T. Tóth, and B. Farkas
The occurrence of a periosteal chondroma (juxtacortical chondroma) in an adult male
is documented for the first time. The chondroma developed near the right shoulder joint from the periosteal membrane, causing partial atrophy in the surrounding skeletal muscles. In the chondroma tissues widespread central necrosis and secondary calcium salt deposition were observed. Monomorphic chondrocytes were irregularly spread in the chondromucin matrix. The lizard had locomotor problems due to irritation of the periosteum and reduced movement of the bones constituting the shoulder joint caused by the chondroma.
Authors:T. Mankovits, I. Budai, G. Balogh, A. Gábora, I. Kozma, T. Varga, S. Manó, and I. Kocsis
The development of an efficient procedure for 3d modeling and finite element simulation of metal foams is one of the greatest challenges for engineer researchers nowadays. Creating 3d CAD model is alone a demanding engineering task due to its extremely complex geometry, and the proper finite element analysis process is still in the center of the research. The increasingly widespread application of the metal foams, e.g. in vehicle and medical industry, requires this knowledge in the design phase. A closed-cell metal foam is studied using different analyzing methods where the aim is to collect information about the composition and geometry (structure) that is satisfactory for the later research. Using statistical methods microscopic, X-ray and surface analyzing studies on the specimens produced according to the concerning standard are evaluated. The main goal of this part of the project is to obtain structural information and to determine the homogeneity or the in-homogeneity property of the metal foam specimens taken from different locations.
Authors:N. Balogh, T. Gaál, F. Husvéth, and P. Vajdovich
Age-related changes of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) of liver and brain, as well as plasma antioxidant capacity of broiler chicken cockerels were investigated. Tissue LPO was characterised by the spectrophotometric assessment of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Plasma antioxidant power was evaluated by the measurement of total antioxidant status (TAS). Newly hatched broiler chicks had similar TAS value (1.19 mmol/l) as newborns of mammalian species. Significant changes (p < 0.05) were observed in the time course of all parameters. Tissue TBARS concentration was higher in the brain than in the liver at hatching, while the latter organ was found to have more effective antioxidant defence during embryonic life. The concentration of TBARS increased up to the 10th day in the liver but only up to the 21st day in the brain, and the former was accompanied by an approximately 50% decrease of plasma antioxidant capacity. This suggests that the liver plays an important role in forming the antioxidant defence mechanisms of the blood plasma in broiler chicks.
Authors:Katalin Németh, M. Mézes, T. Gaál, Á. Bartos, K. Balogh, and F. Husvéth
The effect of supplementary methionine and fats of different saturation levels on the glutathione redox system of growing broiler cockerels was studied. The diet of three groups of chicks was supplemented with corn germ oil, beef tallow and fish oil at the levels of 30 g/kg and 50 g/kg of feed, respectively. The diet of further three groups was supplemented with methionine (5 g/kg of feed) in addition to the different fat sources. Control chicks were fed with a compound feed without methionine and fat supplementation. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) content as well as glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver were determined and GSH/GSSG ratio was calculated at day old and then at one and three weeks of age. Our results indicate that supplementary methionine stimulates both the synthesis of the glutathione redox system and glutathione peroxidase activity in growing chickens in the first period of postnatal life, when the risk of lipid peroxidation is high due to feeding unsaturated fats in the diet.
Authors:J. T. Kundrát, Zs. Balogh, S. Harangi, B. Tóthmérész, and E. Simon
The contamination level of oxbows depends on both natural and anthropogenic effects. The aim of our study was to identify those abiotic and biotic factors that determine the contamination level of oxbows. The effect of anthropogenic activities, seasonality, and vegetation types was studied on the contamination level of surface water of oxbows. The following chemical variables were measured: suspended solid, ammonium, nitrate, chlorophyll-a, Al, Ba, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sr and Zn from eight oxbows from 2013 summer to 2014 autumn in the Upper Tisza region in Eastern Hungary. Three of the studied oxbows were protected, four oxbows were used for fishing and one oxbow was contaminated with wastewater. Our findings revealed that anthropogenic activities had remarkable effect on the contamination level of oxbows. Seasonality also influenced the contamination level, except the concentration of suspended solid, chlorophyll-a and manganese. Significant differences were found among vegetation types for the concentration of suspended solids, aluminium, iron, manganese and lead. The high level of iron concentration was not explained by the anthropogenic activities, suggesting that the quality of oxbows depends on both natural and anthropogenic effects.
Authors:A Nemes, A Kalapos, P Domsik, M Oszlánczi, C Lengyel, L Balogh, and T Forster
Myocardial contractility of the left ventricle (LV) is related to arterial distensibility. Sport activity is frequently associated with changes in both LV and arterial functions. This study aimed to find correlations between three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography-derived segmental LV deformation parameters and echocardiographically assessed aortic stiffness index (ASI) in athletes. This study comprised 26 young elite athletes (mean age: 26.7 ± 8.4 years, nine men).
Among segmental circumferential strains (CSs), only that of apical anterior (r = 0.40, p = 0.05), septal (r = 0.47, p = 0.01), inferior (r = 0.59, p = 0.001), lateral (r = 0.44, p < 0.05), and midventricular anteroseptal (r = 0.44, p < 0.05) segments correlated with ASI, whereas LV-CS of the midventricular anterior segment showed a correlation tendency. Only longitudinal strain of basal anteroseptal (r = −0.46, p < 0.05) and inferoseptal (r = −0.57, p < 0.01) segments showed correlations with ASI, whereas that of the basal anterior segment had only a tendency to correlate. Some segmental multidirectional strains also correlated with ASI.
Correlations could be demonstrated between increased aortic stiffness and circular function of the apical and midventricular LV fibers and longitudinal motion of the basal septum and LV anterior wall (part of LV outflow tract) in maintaining circulation in the elite athletes.