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  • Author or Editor: T. Berzy x
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The research, carried out in the Martonvásár phytotron in 2007, was aimed at determining how the leaf water potential of maize hybrids produced in direct and reciprocal crosses, and thus possessing different levels of seed vigour, changed as the result of water withholding in the flowering phenophase. In the case of the silage maize hybrids Mv 290 and Lima it was found that seedling vigour influenced the plant height (measured at 30 days) of adult plants. Crosses produced on chilling-sensitive female genotypes (GL, AM, H29), such as the hybrids Káma, Maraton and Hunor, proved to be unambiguously stress-sensitive if water was withheld for more than six days. In all cases drought stress reduced the relative quantum efficiency, irrespective of the crossing combination.

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A total of 96 hybrids from four maturity groups (FAO 200, 300, 400, 500) were tested in two years (2006, 2007) at two locations in Hungary (Martonvásár, Szarvas). Considerable differences were found between the years for the grain yield per hectare and for the grain quality parameters. In 2006 record yields were achieved at both locations, averaging 11.61 t/ha in Martonvásár and 12.20 t/ha in Szarvas, due primarily to well-timed irrigation in Martonvásár and to good rainfall supplies in Szarvas. In 2007 both locations suffered from drought, with less rainfall than average during the critical months of the vegetation period, which was partially compensated for by irrigation in Martonvásár, giving a yield average of 5.96 t/ha, while the hybrids grown in Szarvas had a yield average of 5.06 t/ha. The grain quality parameters exhibited a close correlation with the grain yield in the individual FAO maturity groups. Hybrids of the flint type, which have a short vegetation period, had high protein and oil contents, but the yield averages were low due to the slower rate of starch incorporation. Hybrids of the dent type have a longer vegetation period and more intense carbohydrate accumulation, but low protein and oil contents. In wet years and locations there was a higher rate of starch accumulation, while dry years are favourable for protein and oil accumulation. The Bravais correlation coefficient was calculated between the yield and the grain quality parameters (averaged over years, locations and varieties). A positive, moderately strong correlation (0.68) was found between the yield and the starch content, a negative, moderately strong correlation (−0.52) between the yield and the protein content, and a loose negative correlation (−0.19) between the yield and the oil content.

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The adaptability of twelve single cross maize hybrids was investigated at five different locations in Hungary over a three-year period. The characters examined were individual plant production (total mass of the ears on a single plant), thousand kernel mass, number of kernel rows, ear length, number of kernels per row, shelling % and the assimilating leaf area above the main ear.Among these yield components, the individual plant production, the ear length, the number of kernels per row and the grain-cob ratio (shelling %) were influenced to the greatest extent by the year, followed by the variety and the location. The greatest average yield was achieved by the tested hybrids at all five locations in 1997 (263 g/plant). The average yields in 1998 and 1999 were significantly lower (221 and 203 g/plant, respectively). The outstanding yields achieved in 1997 could be attributed to the favourable ecological conditions, which led to the development of secondary ears in Keszthely and Sopronhorpács. At the other three locations there was only one ear per plant, but these ears were longer than in the following years. The greatest year effect was recorded in Sopronhorpács, where the individual plant production amounted to 305 g/plant in 1997 and 238 g/plant in the worst year, 1999. In Gyöngyös conditions were very dry in all three years, so the year effect was least pronounced at this location (grand mean of 195 g/plant in 1997 and 201 g/plant in 1999). Stability analysis was carried out using the coefficient of variance for individual plant production. Hybrids Mv 3, Mv 5, Mv 9 and Mv 12 were found to have the best adaptability. The shelling % was not significantly influenced by the location; the grain-cob ratio is relatively stable for maize hybrids. A correlation was found between the individual plant production and the leaf area above the main ear (R 2 =0.66). Hybrids with the largest leaf area above the main ear also had the greatest ear mass.

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