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Summary  

In this note we use Theorem 2.4 in[1]to give a very short proof of a recent result due to M. Bognr (Theorem A in [3]). We also prove that Bognr's result is in fact equivalent to the classical Hahn-Mazurkiewicz Theorem. Finally we give generalizations in the non-compact setting.

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The effectiveness of five commercial disinfectants used in the food industry was evaluated against different strains isolated from foodborne outbreaks (E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes) and a collection strain (S. aureus) in an aqueous suspension medium. The disinfectants evaluated included quaternary ammonium compounds, aldehydes, hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid, clorhexidine and a tertiary alkylamine.  In the absence of organic matter, all the disinfectants tested were effective with an exposure time of 10 min at the lowest concentration recommended by the manufacturer. However, in the presence of organic matter their effectiveness decreased. The most effective disinfectant against pathogenic bacteria tested was a quaternary ammonium compound based disinfectant combined with non-ionic surfactants, polyphosphates and alkaline salts. The least effective ones were disinfectants containing tertiary alkylamine, peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide.

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Community Ecology
Authors:
F. J. Fernandez-Maldonado
,
J. R. Gallego
,
A. Valencia
,
M. Gamez
,
Z. Varga
,
J. Garay
, and
T. Cabello

Cannibalism is a common phenomenon among insects. It has raised considerable interest both from a theoretical perspective and because of its importance in population dynamics in natural ecosystems. It could also play an important role from an applied perspective, especially when using predatory species in biological control programmes. The present paper aims to study the cannibalistic behaviour of Nabis pseudoferus Remane and the functional response of adult females. In a non-choice experiment, adult females showed clear acceptance of immature conspecifics as prey, with relatively high mortality values (51.89 ± 2.69%). These values were lower than those occurring for heterospecific prey, Spodoptera exigua Hübner, under the same conditions (80.00 ± 2.82%). However, the main result was that the rate of predation on heterospecific prey was reduced to 59.09 ± 7.08% in the presence of conspecific prey. The prey-capture behaviour of adult females differed when they hunted conspecific versus heterospecific prey. This was shown in the average handling time, which was 23.3 ± 3.3 min in the first case (conspecific) versus 16.6 ± 2.5 min in the second (heterospecific). Furthermore, the values increased in the former case and declined in the latter according to the order in which the prey were captured. The difference in handling time was not significant when adjusting the adult female functional response to conspecific nymphs. We argue that these results likely indicate risk aversion and a fear of reprisal among conspecifics.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Beáta Bőthe
,
Mónika Koós
,
Léna Nagy
,
Shane W. Kraus
,
Zsolt Demetrovics
,
Marc N. Potenza
,
Aurélie Michaud
,
Rafael Ballester-Arnal
,
Dominik Batthyány
,
Sophie Bergeron
,
Joël Billieux
,
Peer Briken
,
Julius Burkauskas
,
Georgina Cárdenas-López
,
Joana Carvalho
,
Jesús Castro-Calvo
,
Lijun Chen
,
Giacomo Ciocca
,
Ornella Corazza
,
Rita Csako
,
David P. Fernandez
,
Elaine F. Fernandez
,
Loïs Fournier
,
Hironobu Fujiwara
,
Johannes Fuss
,
Roman Gabrhelík
,
Ateret Gewirtz-Meydan
,
Biljana Gjoneska
,
Mateusz Gola
,
Joshua B. Grubbs
,
Hashim T. Hashim
,
Md. Saiful Islam
,
Mustafa Ismail
,
Martha C. Jiménez-Martínez
,
Tanja Jurin
,
Ondrej Kalina
,
Verena Klein
,
András Költő
,
Chih-Ting Lee
,
Sang-Kyu Lee
,
Karol Lewczuk
,
Chung-Ying Lin
,
Liverpool John Moores University's research team † Liverpool John Moores University's research team
,
Christine Lochner
,
Silvia López-Alvarado
,
Kateřina Lukavská
,
Percy Mayta-Tristán
,
Ionut Milea
,
Dan J. Miller
,
Oľga Orosová
,
Gábor Orosz
,
Sungkyunkwan University's research team †† Sungkyunkwan University's research team
,
Fernando P. Ponce
,
Gonzalo R. Quintana
,
Gabriel C. Quintero Garzola
,
Jano Ramos-Diaz
,
Kévin Rigaud
,
Ann Rousseau
,
Marco De Tubino Scanavino
,
Marion K. Schulmeyer
,
Pratap Sharan
,
Mami Shibata
,
Sheikh Shoib
,
Vera L. Sigre Leirós
,
Luke Sniewski
,
Ognen Spasovski
,
Vesta Steibliene
,
Dan J. Stein
,
Julian Strizek
,
Aleksandar Štulhofer
,
Berk C. Ünsal
, and
Marie-Pier Vaillancourt-Morel

Abstract

Background and aims

Despite its inclusion in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases, there is a virtual paucity of high-quality scientific evidence about compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD), especially in underrepresented and underserved populations. Therefore, we comprehensively examined CSBD across 42 countries, genders, and sexual orientations, and validated the original (CSBD-19) and short (CSBD-7) versions of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder Scale to provide standardized, state-of-the-art screening tools for research and clinical practice.

Method

Using data from the International Sex Survey (N = 82,243; M age = 32.39 years, SD = 12.52), we evaluated the psychometric properties of the CSBD-19 and CSBD-7 and compared CSBD across 42 countries, three genders, eight sexual orientations, and individuals with low vs. high risk of experiencing CSBD.

Results

A total of 4.8% of the participants were at high risk of experiencing CSBD. Country- and gender-based differences were observed, while no sexual-orientation-based differences were present in CSBD levels. Only 14% of individuals with CSBD have ever sought treatment for this disorder, with an additional 33% not having sought treatment because of various reasons. Both versions of the scale demonstrated excellent validity and reliability.

Discussion and conclusions

This study contributes to a better understanding of CSBD in underrepresented and underserved populations and facilitates its identification in diverse populations by providing freely accessible ICD-11-based screening tools in 26 languages. The findings may also serve as a crucial building block to stimulate research into evidence-based, culturally sensitive prevention and intervention strategies for CSBD that are currently missing from the literature.

Open access