FexNi1-xCl2 is a mixed metal chloride and a random mixture with competing orthogonal spin anisotropies. In pure systems, Fe2+ shows a preferential spin inclination to the c-axis, while Ni2+ shows a weak spin anisotropy in the c-plane. Mössbauer spectra of the FexNi1-xCl2 system (0.034<x<0.079) observed below the Néel temperature (TN) are composed of two types of sub-spectra: spectra I and II. We report the Mössbauer study of the magnetic behavior of different types of Fe2+ spins.
In order to explore the functions of the peripheral neurons in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastropods,
, we investigated the correlation between peripheral neuronal activities and movements of the digestive tract. In
, movements of the gizzard were distinguished into two types of contraction: a large constriction of the whole gizzard following bursting activities of the neurons on the gizzard and EJP-like potentials in the musculature; and a small contraction of a restricted part of the gizzard following a slow muscle potential. When TTX was applied to isolated gizzard preparation, the bursting activities were blocked and the EJP-like potentials and the subsequent constriction disappeared, whereas the slow potentials in the musculature and partial contractions appeared to be unaffected. Therefore, it was suggested that the peripheral neurons on the gizzard were motor neurons for constriction, while the partial contraction was thought to be myogenic. In
, we recorded periodic bursting activities in the enteric nervous system that were followed by EJP-like potentials and gastrointestinal movements. The results show that, in both species, there may exist motor neurons in the ENS that are responsible for neurogenic movements of the digestive tract.
Authors:T. Ito, T. Nagasaki, K. Iwasaki, M. Yoshino, and T. Matsui
Summary Proton concentration in SrZr0.95M0.05O3-α (M=Ga, Sc, Y and Nd) was measured with a thermobalance at different temperatures (T=673-973 K) and water vapor pressures (PH2O=0.9-12.8 kPa). At all the pressures and temperatures examined, the amount of proton concentration in these samples is in the order of Sc>Y>Ga>Nd. By an equilibrium evaluation, we estimated the maximum possible proton concentration about 2.0 mol% in these samples. Infrared (IR) absorption spectra are measured in these samples. The absorption bands can be fitted by four (M=Ga, Y, Nd) or three (M=Sc) Gaussian bands.
Authors:K. Ito, Y. Ujihira, T. Yamashita, and K. Horie
Discontinuous and continuous volume phase transitions of organic polymer hydrogels, such as polyacrylamide (PAAm) and poly(N-isopropylamide) (PNIPA) gels, uponpH and temperature were studied by the positron annihilation lifetime measurement, which allows the estimation of size, intensity and size distribution of the free volume. Microscopic changes of physical and chemical interactions between gel network and solvent molecules and among conjugated solvent molecules at volume phase transitions of polyacrylamide gels were discussed.
Summary Some aromatic based conjugated polymers having carbon-carbon triple bonds moiety were synthesized and carbonized. The polymers were efficiently carbonized by heating up to 900°C under an argon atmosphere, affording porous carbons in high yields. The polymer characteristics were appropriate to form nano-structured carbons in the pyrolytic carbonization process. The carbon materials were consisted of 2-4 nm sized graphitic crystallites and had slit-shaped micropores with ca. 0.7 nm pore width. Structural defects in the pre-carbon materials caused generation of mesopores with ca. 4 nm pore width after carbonization.
Authors:T. Ito, Y. Yoshioka, T. Sonoda, Y. Yoshihashi, E. Yonemochi, and K. Terada
ampoule breakage during the freeze-drying process was prevented by the addition
of sodium chloride to the formulation of lyophilization products of sodium
thiopental. In order to clarify the ampoule breakage prevention mechanism,
the physicochemical behavior of the freeze-drying process was monitored by
simultaneous XRD-DSC measurements and thermal mechanical analysis (TMA). During
the freezing process of formulated solution, the smaller heat of fusion of
crystallized ice with the addition of sodium chloride was observed in comparison
to that without sodium chloride. Although a greater amorphous portion remained,
a higher crystal habit of hexagonal ice was reproducibly observed in the XRD
patterns with the addition of sodium chloride during the freezing process.
In the measurement of TMA, the scattering of the thermal expansion rate of
formulated solution was significantly reduced by the addition of sodium chloride.
These observations indicated that the addition of sodium chloride minimized
the scattering of the thermal expansion rate and might be a cause for the
inhibition of glass ampoule breakage during the freeze-drying process.
Authors:T. Suzuki, Y. Oki, M. Numajiri, T. Miura, K. Kondo, N. Oshima, T. Hayashi, H. Nakamura, and Y. Ito
The polymerization process of bisphenol-A dicyanate (BADCy) has been studied using a positron-annihilation lifetime technique (PAL). The polymerization was conducted at 150°C, and the process was followed by PAL. Seven kinds of samples with different curing times were also formed at 150°C, and the relation between the period of the curing time and the degree of polymerization was studied. It has been shown that theo-Ps lifetime increases in samples with a higher polymerization than 85%, which is consistent with measurements of the specific volume of BADCy.
Authors:Ch. He, E. Hamada, T. Suzuki, H. Kobayashi, K. Kondo, V. Shantarovich, and Y. Ito
A new pulsed mono-energetic slow positron beam as well as the conventional positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) have been applied to study the sub-surface and the bulk of epoxy polymer. Significant changes of o-Ps parameters were found at a short distance from the surface. The lifetime of o-Ps was observed to decrease with increasing the positron implantation depth, while its intensity increased. The temperature effect on o-Ps parameters at sub-surface was also investigated. The glass transition temperature for the sub-surface was lower than that for the bulk. Furthermore, the thermal expansion coefficient of the sub-surface was found smaller than that of the bulk.
Authors:N. Oshima, E. Hamada, T. Suzuki, K. Kondo, I. Kanazawa, and Y. Ito
Pulsed slow positrons were produced using a time-varying moderator bias with an interval of 82 ns; 97% of the positrons were
compressed within 2 ns width at the target position. Both the positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening of the
positron annihilation radiation (DBPR) of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were measured as a function of the incident energy
of slow positrons. It was shown that the lifetime and intensity of the long-lived component of positron annihilation are independent
of the positron incident energy above 1.2 keV. However, the width of the Doppler-broadened annihilation γ-ray increased in
the energy region below 1.2 keV.
Authors:K. Ito, H.-L. Li, Y. Saito, T. Yamamoto, Y. Nishihara, Y. Ujihira, and K. Nomura
The size distribution of free-volume (<~0.1 nm3) of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer with various crystalline degrees was estimated by positronium lifetime measurement. With increasing degree of crystallinity, the size distribution significantly narrowed and the intensity of positronium decreased. This indicates that the inhomogeneity reduces with the increase of the degree of crystallinity. It is found that the free-volume fraction estimated is reflected by the fraction of the amorphous region.