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  • Author or Editor: T. Kismányoky x
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The influence of organic and nitrogen fertilization on the amount and quality of wheat yield was examined in Keszthely on Ramann's brown forest soil containing an average level of potassium, a low level of phosphorus and a medium level of nitrogen. The experiment involved treatments with 0-200 kg/hectare of nitrogen, 100 kg/hectare each of phosphorus (P2O5) and potassium (K2O), farmyard manure, straw and green manure, together with a non-fertilized control. Nitrogen fertilization had a substantial effect on the yield (the 1.98 t/hectare yield was increased threefold by 200 kg/hectare of nitrogen). The treatments modified the quality of wheat significantly. Nitrogen fertilization together with farmyard manure increased the gluten content (to 35.8% compared to 11.35% in the control). The farinographic index increased to 77.4 (from 33.9 in the control) and the Zeleny number also increased significantly (from 10 in the control to 35.5). When low rates of nitrogen were applied overall improvement was not achieved in spite of the favourable influence of farmyard manure.

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Authors: Éva Lehoczky, Z. Tóth, A. Kismányoky and T. Kismányoky

The effect of four NPK fertilizer rates (NPK[1:1:1]: 0, 300, 600, 900 kg active ingredients·ha -1 ) was studied on the growth of maize and on weed infestation - bio-mass production and nutrient uptake of weeds - in four replications in a 35-year old long-term maize continuous cropping field experiment (Keszthely, Hungary). The weed flora was recorded on 1 June, 2003 in the 6-8-leaf development stage of maize. The effect of the increasing rates of fertilizers was analyzed and evaluated from the results of biomass production as well as the nutrient uptake of weeds and maize, respectively. On the experimental plots 9 weed species were registered at the date of sampling, from which 4 species were perennial and 5 species were annual ones. All the weeds were collected from 1 m² areas of each plot and the different weed species were separated from each other. The fresh and dry weights of the canopy of maize and the different weed species were measured. The nutrient (NPK) contents of maize and weed samples were measured in the laboratory. Total and species scale nutrient concentration, as well as per-unit nutrient uptake of maize and weeds were compared. The increasing rates of mineral fertilizers had a significant effect on the biomass production and on the nutrient uptake of weeds. Significant differences were also found between the biomass production and nutrient uptake of the different weed species.

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Nutrient management practices that concurrently improve soil properties and yield are essential for sustaining barley production. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of balanced nitrogen fertilizer application involving farmyard manure (FYM) and residue management. The experiment had a factorial arrangement of five levels of mineral N and two organic fertilizer sources. The five levels of N fertilizer were applied in three replicates in combination with each of the two organic sources and a control (without organic source). Average plant height (PH), grain yield (GY), and straw yield (SY) were significantly (P <0.05) influenced by the main effect of N application and organic source; however their interaction was insignificant. The highest grain yield (103%) was obtained with 120 kg N compared to the control. The grain yield increased by 23.4% and 44% with FYM and residue, respectively, against the untreated control.

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Detailed coenological studies were made at four developmental stages during the vegetation period in three sowing date variants in a long-term multifactorial experiment carried out in the Crop Production Institute of Pannon University. Both experimental years had poor rainfall supplies. The Balázs-Ujvárosi scoring method was used to register the extent of weed infestation and how it changed over the vegetation period. Both the wheat grain yield and the level of weed infestation were greatly influenced by the sowing date. Averaged over the two years, the largest volume of weeds was recorded in March. After the wheat started shooting, the weeds were suppressed. The three sowing dates had the greatest effect on weed growth from the stage of initial development to shooting. After late sowing, the smallest number of weeds was observed during this period in both years. By the time the crop matured the level of weed infestation had changed, with the largest number of weeds in the late-sown variant, where the wheat did not form a closed canopy. Averaged over all samplings in both years, the following five species had the highest abundance: Stellaria media (4.86%), Veronica hederifolia (3.38%), Papaver rhoeas (1.97%), Capsella bursa pastoris (1.41%), Matricaria maritima (0.96%).

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