agricultural production is a basic, traditional constituent of the Hungarian economy. An importance question nowadays is how the land can be cultivated and agricultural goods produced under the conditions of sustainable development. From the plant nutrition point of view the establishment of an environment-friendly fertilizer recommendation system is essential if sustainable development is to be achieved. Most experts agree that this type of fertilizer recommendation system is able to fulfil the growing demands of a growing population, while keeping the environment in good condition for the next generations. The experts also agree that fertilizer application could not be replaced widely with organic farming alone. An environmentally friendly fertilizer recommendation system has to be sensitive enough to respond to the effects of different conditions, e.g. great spatial variability of soil characteristics, mosaic-like soil cover, climate, crop rotation practices, soil nutrient supply, etc. There was a dramatic change in Hungarian agriculture at the beginning of the 90s, as the result of which the use of fertilizers decreased sharply for several reasons, e.g. privatization, changes in ownership, withdrawal of state subsidies for mineral fertilizers, drought, etc. Both Hungarian agriculture and the country as a whole is now facing two challenges, i.e. to overcome the economic difficulties and to complete the final phase of preparations to join the EU. Land use change scenarios have proved that the natural endowments of Hungary are suitable for integrating agricultural production with environmental and landscape protection and nature conservation.
The paper aims to overview some typical principles of communicative language use in a cognitive pragmatic approach applying a reductionist method in order to demonstrate that the well-known principles can be reduced to a very general rationality (economy) principle. After briefly reviewing the principles the paper re-evaluates them and provides a new classification of them relying on the definition of ostensive-inferential communication. The principles which can be divided into rationality and interpersonality principles are really principles of effective information transmission on objects and selves. They refer to two kinds of language use: informative and communicative ones. The only principles valid for only communicative language use are the communicative principle of relevance and the principle of communicative intention suggested in the present article. Finally, the paper reduces all rationality and interpersonality principles to a very general rationality principle, i.e., the cognitive principle of relevance.
Four kinds of lamb meat foods (Wiener sausage, ham, roasted meat, and roasted leg) were developed based on 8 different genotypes to improve lamb meat quality and quantity, and to study the differences among them. The stringiness, flavour, and odour of the products were judged in food sensory evaluation by a total of 265 (60% male and 40% female) randomly selected consumers. In stringiness and flavour five (from 1 to 5), and concerning odour three (from 1 to 3) categories were created according to decreasing quality. The consumers represented different age groups: below 20 years, between 21–30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, 61–70, and above 70 years. The groups of consumers were involved in sheep farming, other animal farming, other agriculture sector, industry, catering, education, other service; administrative department of the state, were students, and others. Analyses of variance were calculated to estimate the effects of the genotype of lamb, the gender, age, and occupation of judging consumers on the sensory evaluation of the meat foods. In conclusion, new lamb meat foods were highly appreciated by consumers, who made definite distinctions among genotypes according to flavour, stinginess, and odour. There were significant interactions between gender, age, and occupation of consumers as well as sensory evaluation of various lamb meat foods.
Authors:P. Jankovics, T. Németh, J. Németh-palotás, and H. Kőszegi-szalai
A reversed-phase ion-pairing liquid chromatographic (RP-IP-HPLC) method for simultaneous assay of theophylline (TH), phenobarbital (PB), codeine (CD), and ephedrine (EP) in an extemporaneous (magistral) suppository was developed and validated and used to investigate a reported serious adverse event. Samples were dissolved in dichloromethane and extracted by two-step liquid-liquid extraction with acetate buffer (pH 5.0) and, subsequently, 0.1 m NaOH solution. Separation was performed on an end-capped C18 silica column with stepwise gradient elution. Sample preparation and chromatographic conditions were optimized on the basis of the pKa values of the analytes. Freedom from interference from the excipients, linearity (r2 > 0.999 for all the active ingredients), range (0.01–0.08 mg mL−1 for TH, CD, and EP; 0.0025–0.02 mg mL−1 for PB), intra-day and inter-day precision, and accuracy (recovery >95% for TH, CD, and EP and >90% for PB) of the method were demonstrated. Non-compliance of the examined product was confirmed.
The present article discusses the applicability of thermoanalytical methods in the analysis of Hungarian soils formed on carbonate rocks. Up to now only limited mineralogical and soil chemical research has been done on these soils. Soils from the Bükk Mountains, the most varied limestone region in Hungary, were used for the investigations. The aim was to extend our incomplete knowledge on the mineral composition and formation processes of these soils and to demonstrate the possibilities and evaluation potential of thermoanalytical techniques. All the soils investigated were formed on limestone and had different surface soil thickness, influenced by the accumulation of silicate debris and the microterrain. The results of soil mineralogical analysis revealed an extraordinarily high proportion of quartz compared to that of other minerals (especially calcite), indicating that these soils could not have originated solely from the weathering of the limestone bedrock. The results also showed that thermoanalytical methods could complement classical chemical and instrumental (XRPD) methods in research on the genesis of soils formed on limestone.
Authors:T. Naszradi, N. Németh, P. Köles, and et al.
The toxic heavy metal concentrations were investigated in plants in a meadow located 51 kilometres from Budapest along the M3 motorway. The field is regularly harvested, and the hay is used as fodder. The area under investigation is situated directly alongside the protecting fence of the motorway. The soil of the area is classified as chernozem brown forest soil. In 2000 approximately 22,860 cars per month travelled on the motorway. The plant samples were taken at a distance of 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 metres from the motorway. At each distance 10 samples were collected. After digestion with hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid the zinc, lead, cadmium and copper contents of the samples were analysed using an ICP spectrophotometer. After analysing the data it was established that for each of the heavy metals the concentration of metal in the plant samples decreased as the distance from the motorway grew. The measured zinc, cadmium and copper concentrations were similar to those reported by other authors (on average 44.9, 0.276 and 5.25 mg kg-1), while the values of the lead concentration were lower than those published previously (on average 2.93 mg kg-1). This may have been due to the widespread use of lead-free fuel.