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  • Author or Editor: T. Niiya x
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Abstract  

The antibacterial action of amoxicillin (AMPC) and the inclusion complexes of AMPC with α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins (α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD, respectively) to Escherichia coli B (E. coli) was evaluated by isothermal titration microcalorimetry and by petri-dish bioassay method. The effects of the compounds on produced heat during the exponential phase of the E. coli growing were measured and the growing rate constants of the cells was calculated from the power-time (p-t) curve before and after the treatment with AMPC. Results from the both methods showed that the antibacterial activity became stronger in the following order: AMPC-βCD > AMPC-γCD ≈ AMPC-αCD > AMPC only.

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Abstract  

Two different types (structures) of inclusion complexes with a 1:1 stoichiometry between barbiturates and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCyD) were realized in aqueous solution using isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular dynamics simulation. The first type of complex with a higher association constant was entropy driven and the substituent R 2 was inserted into the HPCyD cavity by hydrophobic interaction. The barbituric acid ring contributed to the second type of complex, which was characterized by large negative values of ΔH and small positive ΔS reflecting van der Waals interaction and/or hydrogen bonding formation between the hetero atoms in the barbituric acid ring and the secondary hydroxyl groups of HPCyD.

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Abstract  

The formation of inclusion complexes between amoxicillin (AMPC) and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) was investigated by isothermal microcalorimetry and molecular dynamics simulation to evaluate the inhibitory effects on the degradation of AMPC in aqueous solutions at various pH. The process depended significantly on the ionic species of AMPC in the solution. In a strong acid solution, cationic AMPC and HPCD formed two different types of inclusion complexes with a 1:1 stoichiometry: the first-type had a high association constant K 1 of 4.0-8.0103 M-1 and included the penam ring of AMPC in the HPCD cavity (Mode I), while the second-type with a K 2 of 1.0103 M-1 contained the phenyl group of AMPC (Mode II). Furthermore, a complex with a 1:2 (AMPC:HPCD) stoichiometry was realized in a two-step reaction and was characterized by a smaller K 1:2of 4.0102 M-1 and larger negative enthalpy and entropy changes than the complexes with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Since the β-lactam ring of AMPC could be protected by inclusion with HPCD in the 1:2 complex and Mode I of 1:1 complexes, the degradation of AMPC in the presence of HPCD was approximately four times slower than in its absence at pH 1.2 and 37C. In weak acid and neutral solutions, zwitterionic AMPC and HPCD formed only one type of inclusion complex with a 1:1 stoichiometry, where the phenyl group was included (Mode II). AMPC was very stable in these solutions (t 1/2=226 h at pH=6.0) and there is little significant difference in the degradation rate between complexed AMPC and uncomplexed AMPC. Thus, the results indicated that the inclusion complex of AMPC with HPCD, effectively increasing the stability of AMPC in a strong acidic solution like that the stomach, would be useful for eradicating Helicobacter pylori infection and as a drug delivery system.

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