Cryptobiotic crusts are important part of the mostly open, extreme terrestrial ecosystems. Their main components are the Cyanobacteria, therefore their strategies for survival can be traced down through the investigation of the cyanobacterial components and their different arrangement in the structure of the different crust types. In this study, 10 terricolous and 12 rupicolous types/subtypes were established from the samples collected in 5 continents from deserts to forest areas during the past 6 years. Each type is illustrated and their main cyanobacterial components are enumerated through examples and their survival strategies are analysed.
The study of certain Lejeuneaceae types from the Geneva Herbarium (Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève, G) resulted in the new synonymy of Drepanolejeunea cambouena Steph. with Drepanolejeunea pentadactyla (Mont.) Steph., that of Lejeunea rodriguezii (Steph.) Steph. with Lejeunea anisophylla Mont. and proved the independent identity of Lejeunea jungneri (Steph.) Steph. Types of some rare species, as Lejeunea angulifolia Mitt. and Lejeunea julacea Steph. were also examined and illustrated. Drepanolejeunea dactylophora (Nees et al.) Schiffn. is new to Africa and L. angulifolia for the Chagos Archipelago and to the Seychelles.
The recent investigation of the Fiji Islands in the Pacific revealed many new records and the known number of Cololejeunea species was raised from 10 to 38. One out of these fell in synonymy and another proved to be a new species. Altogether eight taxa are described here, as new to science: Cololejeunea bifalcata, C. blepharophylla, C. crateris, C. konratii, C. pacifica, C. saroltae, C. schmidtii var. acutepapillosa and C. tuiwawana. The aim of this paper, apart from the description of new species, includes the redescription of Cololejeunea polyantha and the lectotypification of Lejeunea polyantha (on which C. polyantha is based), and to provide a key for all the 43 species recently known from the Fiji Islands. Some new insular records are also added and finally a phytogeographical analysis on the Fijian Cololejeunea flora is made.
Telaranea bischleriana sp. nov. is described from the
Seychelles and from the eastern coast of Madagascar, distinguished by only two
intervening cells between its very dense, rigid, bristle like leaves with two
short and quite divergent lobes. Telaranea maorensis sp. nov. from Mayotte
Island with monocrurous leaves is similar in appearance to the South American
T. pecten (Spruce) Engel et Merr., but differs by its pseudo-dichotomous habit,
due to the predominant Frullania type terminal branching, the shorter and wider
leaves and lobe cells, monocrurous male and outer female bracts and by its
autoecy. New localities of the two African Amazoopsis species are also given.
Pócs is described from the Canaima National Park in Venezuelan Guyana. It differs from the previously known five species by its sharply refracted lobe, by the parallelly elongated cells of free lobule margin, by the broad reniform underleaves of 2–3x stem width with rounded lobes and by its perianth with auriculate wings, fimbriately dentate margin and exserted beak.
Cololejeunea ecuadoriensis and Cololejeunea schusteri are described from Ecuador and from Brazilian Amazonia. C. ecuadoriensis by its filamentous stylus and C. schusteri by its falcate leaves with its first tooth curved down are well separated from all Neotropical species of the genus.
Pócs is described from the Nguru Mountains, part of the Precambrian chain of isolated crystalline mountains forming the Eastern Arc of Tanzania. It differs from the related
Grey-Wilson by its deeper crenulate leaf margin with only 10–15 teeth at each side (around 20 in
), by the narrower dorsal petal with straight lower margin and by the much less incurved spur of the lower petal. It is the second known endemic species of
in the Nguru Mts.
Within the framework of ASEAN-ARBC Biodiversity Program the hitherto unknown bryophyte flora of Vu Quang Nature Reserve in north central Vietnam was studied by the authors together with Prof. Benito C. Tan. From the lower vegetational belts 41 liverwort taxa were distinguished, of which Cheilolejeunea streimannii and Cololejeunea vuquangensis are new to science, 8 taxa are new to the whole Indochina or to Asia, while further 4 are new to the bryoflora of Vietnam. An analysis of distribution patterns shows the relative high proportion of endemics and the dominancy of Southeast Asian and of Indomalesian elements in the hepatic flora. Further investigations are needed to reveal the characters of the bryoflora in the montane forest belts at higher altitudes.
Cololejeunea yelitzae, member of subgen. Incalejeunea is described from Venezuela, as new to science. It is characterised by the very variable leaf width from wide ovate to narrow lanceolate within the same plant, by the acute leaf apex and by its acute lanceolate lobule with a wide gap between the 1st and 2nd teeth. Gemmae abundantly develop on leaf surface and even on the perianth. It is widely distributed in the mountain areas from Costa Rica to Bolivia. With this new taxon the known number of Neotropical Cololejeunea species is raised to 71.