Authors:O. Tereshchenko, T. Pshenichnikova, E. Salina, and E. Khlestkina
Purple colour of wheat grain is determined by anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarp. This trait is controlled in hexaploid Triticum aestivum or tetraploid T. durum wheats by two complementary dominant genes Pp1 (chromosome 7B) and Pp3 (chromosome 2A). It remained unclear, whether functional alleles of one of the two complementary Pp genes occur in the diploid progenitors of allopolyploid wheat or in tetraploid T. timopheevii. In the current study, a purple-grained wheat line PC was obtained by crossing non-purple-grained T. aestivum Line 821 and Line 102/00i carrying introgressions from T. timopheevii and Aegilops speltoides, respectively. Crosses of lines 821 and 102/00i with a number of tester lines and cultivars did not result in purple-grained genotypes suggesting that expression of this trait in PC was controlled by complementary factors, one located in the T. timopheevii introgression and the other in the introgression inherited from Ae. speltoides. Genotyping of PC and other parental lines using microsatellite markers located on wheat chromosomes 7B and 2A showed that PC carries chromosome 7S of Ae. speltoides substituting for chromosome 7B, whereas chromosome 2A of PC contains an extended introgression from T. timopheevii.
Authors:E. Khlestkina, T. Pshenichnikova, M. Röder, and A. Börner
Two bread wheat crosses were used to genetically map the genes determining anthocyanin pigmentation of the anther
, culm (
), leaf sheath
, and leaf blade
. The genes cluster with
(red coleoptile) on chromosome arms 7BS and 7DS. A germplasm panel of 37 wheat cultivars and introgression lines was tested for the presence of anthocyanin pigmentation on various plant organs, and significant correlations were established between pigmentation of the coleoptile and culm, coleoptile and leaf blade, coleoptile and anther, and anther and leaf blade.
Authors:E. Khlestkina, E. Salina, T. Pshenichnikova, M. Röder, and A. Börner
A segregation test confirmed that the genes present on chromosome 1A encoding red and black glumes are allelic to one another. Similarly, the chromosome 1D genes for smokey-grey and red glume coloration are allelic. Consensus maps of chromosomes 1A and 1D carrying
, respectively, were derived from extant genotypic data. The
associated microsatellite MW1B002 mapped 2cM proximal from
. The association of red glume coloration with specific MW1B002 alleles is described for a set of Russian, Albanian, Indian and Nepalese bread wheats.
Authors:S. Osipova, A. Permyakov, T. Mitrofanova, V. Trufanov, M. Ermakova, A. Chistyakova, and T. Pshenichnikova
For six wheat varieties with different quality it was shown that GSH-dependent protein-disulphide oxidoreductase (TPDO) increases the activity to the third week after anthesis, a period of maximum synthesis of storage proteins in wheat kernels. The study revealed a correlation between TPDO activity in maturing kernels and dough stiffness. The addition of exogenous TPDO to flour significantly increased dough extensibility (from 17 to 49% for cultivars with different quality), which implies the ability of the enzyme to disrupt SS bonds in high-molecular weight gluten polymers.
Authors:L.V. Shchukina, T.A. Pshenichnikova, A.K. Chistyakova, E.K. Khlestkina, and A. Börner
Various milling parameters, wet gluten content and key dough properties were analyzed for two sister lines of bread wheat with Ae. markgrafii introgressions in genetic background of cultivar Alcedo carrying a set of sub-chromosomal alien segments on chromosomes 2AS, 2BS, 3BL, 4AL and 6DL. The lines revealed higher grain vitreousness, larger particle size of flour, and higher wet gluten content in grain compared to cv. Alcedo. The flour from these lines also showed excellent water absorption and developed more resilient dough. The introgressions in the Alcedo genome caused no reduction in 1,000-grain weight. General improvement of the grain technological properties appears to be the result of introgressions into 2AS, 2BS and 3BL chromosomes. Coincidence of locations of Ae. markgrafii introgressions in chromosome with the QTLs positions for technological traits, revealed in bread wheat mapping populations, is discussed.
Authors:S. Osipova, A. Permyakov, M. Permyakova, V. Davydov, T. Pshenichnikova, and A. Börner
Variation in tolerance of prolonged drought was identified among a set of single chromosome bread wheat substitution lines, involving the replacement of each cv. Chinese Spring chromosome in turn with its homologue from a synthetic hexaploid (Triticum dicoccoides × Aegilops tauschii). Water stress was applied under controlled conditions by limiting the supply of water to 30% from 100% aqueous soil. The reaction to the resulting long-term drought stress was quantified by three indices, based on grain yield components. Enhanced drought tolerance was associated with the presence of donor chromosomes 1A, 5A, 1D, 3D, 5D and 6D, and enhanced susceptibility with chromosomes 3A, 4B and 7D.
Authors:L.V. Shchukina, T.A. Pshenichnikova, E.K. Khlestkina, S. Misheva, T. Kartseva, A. Abugalieva, and A. Börner
Bread wheat is the primary bread crop in the majority of countries in the world. The most important product that is manufactured from its grain and flour is yeast bread. In order to obtain an excellent bread, grain with high physical properties is needed for flour and dough. The Russian spring wheat cultivar Saratovskaya 29 is characterized by its exclusively high physical properties of flour and dough. The purpose of this work was to identify the chromosomes carrying the main loci for these traits in Saratovskaya 29 and to map them using recombinant substitution lines genotyped with molecular markers. A set of inter-varietal substitution lines Saratovskaya 29 (Yanetzkis Probat) was used to identify the “critical” chromosomes. The donor of individual chromosomes is a spring cultivar with average dough strength and tenacity. Substitution of 1D and 4D*7A chromosomes in the genetic background of Saratovskaya 29 resulted in a significant decrease in the physical properties of the dough. Such a deterioration in the case of 1D chromosome might be related to the variability of gluten protein composition. With the help of recombinant substitution double haploid lines obtained from a Saratovskaya 29 (Yanetzkis Probat 4D*7A) substitution line the region on the 4D chromosome was revealed in the strong-flour cultivar Saratovskaya 29, with the microsatellite locus Xgwm0165 to be associated with the unique physical properties of flour and dough. The detected locus is not related to the composition gluten proteins. These locus may be recommended to breeders for the selection of strong-flour cultivars. Additionally, a QTL associated with vitreousness of grain was mapped in the short arm of chromosome 7A.