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  • Author or Editor: T. Shigematsu x
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Abstract  

Determination of trace impurities in zinc selenide was carried out by substoichiometric neutron activation analysis. Trace impurities were separated from matrix elements by suitable procedures and determined by substoichiometric methods, i.e., Au was extracted with rhodamine-B, Ag and Cu with dithizone, Cr with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, Co with 1-nitroso-2-naphthol, and Sb with cupferron. Two sorts of zinc selenide single crystals were supplied for analysis and the following values were obtained as impurity concentration; Au 0.36, 0.076 ppb, Ag 42, 32 ppb, Cr. 1.8, 0.63 ppm, Co 0.16, 0.0079 ppm, Sb 8.5, 5.9 ppb and Cu 1.4, 0.44 ppm. The behavior of copper by heat-treatment of zinc selenide was also studied by means of substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis.

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Abstract  

A study of the substoichiometric extraction of phosphorus is described. Phosphorus was extracted in the form of ternary compounds such as ammonium phosphomolybdate, 8-hydroxyquinolinium phosphomolybdate, tetraphenylarsonium phosphomolybdate and tri-n-octylamine phosphomolybdate. Consequently, phosphorus was extracted substoichiometrically by the addition of a substoichiometric amount of molybdenum for all four phosphomolybdate compounds. On the other hand, phosphorus could be separated substoichiometrically with a substoichiometric amount of tetraphenylarsonium chloride or tri-n-octylamine. Stoichiometric ratios of these ternary compounds obtained substoichiometrically were 1∶12∶3 for phosphorus, molybdenum and organic reagent. Applicability of these compounds to phosphorus determination was also discussed.

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Abstract  

Phosphorus in orchard leaves (NBS SRM-1571) and spinach (SRM-1570) was determined by various substoichiometric analytical methods such as the direct method, GRASHCHENKO's method and the method of carrier amount variation. All samples were labelled with32P radioisotope. The data obtained by the method of carrier amount variation were also treated by the method of least squares instead of De VOE's method. Phosphorus concentration in orchard leaves was 0.206±0.011% by the direct method, 0.219±0.011% by GRASHCHENKO's method, 0.211±0.011% by the method of carrier amount variation and 0.207±0.007% by the method of least squares, respectively. These values agree with the value reported by NBS (0.21±0.01%). Furthermore, these concentrations obtained by various substoichiometric methods were compared with those by radioactivation reported in a prevoius paper.

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Abstract  

Substoichiometric extraction of chromium with tetraphenylarsonium chloride (TPACl), tri-n-octylamine (TNOA), diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDDC) and ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) was examined in detail. Chromium can be extracted substoichiometrically in a pH range, which is 1.1–2.6 for the TPACl compound, 0.6–2.3 for the TNOA compound, 5.1–6.4 for the DDCC chelate and 3.9–4.9 for the APDC chelate. Chromium in high-purity calcium carbonate, Orchard Leaves (NBS SRM-1571) and Brewers Yeast (NBS SRM-1569) was determined by neutron activation analysis combined with substoichiometric extraction by DDDC and APDC. The values of 2.0±0.02 ppm and 2.6±0.2 ppm were obtained for Brewers Yeast and Orchard Leaves, respectively. These values were in good agreement with the values reported by NBS. The reaction mechanism and the reaction ratio between hexavalent chromium and dithiocarbamate were also discussed.

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Abstract  

This paper presents simultaneous substoichiometric separation of four rare earth elements; samarium, europium, terbium and ytterbium. The elements are separated simultaneously and substoichiometrically by forming their complexanates with substoichiometric DTPA and extracting their unreacted parts with HTTA. Application to the determination of these elements by substoichiometric neutron activation is also presented.

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Abstract  

The simultaneous substoichiometric separation of europium and terbium is presented and its application to the determination of these elements with DTPA and HTTA is developed. Experimental results for the simultaneous substoichiometric separation are in good agreement with the theoretical results introduced by the principle. Europium and terbium in orchard leaves are determined by simultaneous substoichiometric neutron activation. The analytical values are 23±1.1 ppb for europium, and 17±1.2 ppb for terbium.

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Abstract  

Trace amounts of transition elements (Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) in zirconium fluoride and NBS SRM's were determined by substoichiometric radioactivation analysis. The contents of impurities in sublimed sample were less than those of high-purity material and of reagent grade. The detection limits of these elements in zirconium fluoride were 10 ng/g for iron, 0.01 ng/g for cobalt, 1 ng/g for nickel and 0.1 ng/g for copper. The analytical results for iron, cobalt, nickel and copper in NBS SRM's were in good agreement with certified values.

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Abstract  

Methods for simultaneous determination of europium and terbium based on concentration dependent distribution is described. With these methods, the distribution ratios of elements are measured in two types of substoichiometric systems. Possibility of determining these elements simultaneously is investigated experimentally by using two pairs of substoichiometric complexans/excess extracting agents, such as DTPA/HTTA and EDTA/HTTA. Relative errors and precisions for simultaneous determination of the elements are less than 5%.

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Abstract  

The charged particle activation analysis of ultra-trace carbon in boron-doped silicon with the12C(d,n)13N reaction has been developed. In order to apply13N substoichiometric separation to determine carbon in silicon, we studied the rapid dissolution of silicon using nitric acid as the13N carrier. Its amounts were as small and definite as possible and the nitrogen oxide gas produced during the dissolution was collected. Silicon was dissolved for 6 min in a mixture of hydrofluoric acid, acetic acid and phosphoric acid, which contained potassium nitrate as the13N carrier and nitrogen oxide was collected in the sodium hydroxide solution. In order to combine the dissolution method with13N substoichiometric separation, the conditions for steam distillation as pre-separation were also refined in relation to increases in the amount of carrier. Nitrogen-13 was separated substoichiometrically after silicon dissolution and steam distillation. This analytical procedure was used to determine carbon in boron-doped CZ–Si. Carbon at 0.7–12.7·1015 atoms/cm3 was determined with good reproducibility. It took less than 30 min to start the radioactivity measurement after the end of iradiation. The detection limit was 2·1013 atoms/cm3 (0.2 ppb).

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Abstract  

A method of radioactivation analysis has been developed for the determination of 17 elements as impurities in high-purity optical glasses. The substoichiometric extraction of platinum with dithizone was studied and a simple procedure was proposed for the determination of platinum. Copper and manganese were also determined substoichiometrically by the extractions with dithizone and with thenoyltrifluoracetone, respectively. The non-destructive γ-ray spectrometry using a Ge(Li) detector has been applied for the determination of the other 14 elements (Ag, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Ir, Sc, Zn, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Ta and Tb). Impurity elements at the ppb level were analysed by the proposed method and it is shown that the method is reliable for the determination of trace impurities in high-purity optical glasses.

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