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The damage caused by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogynidae) (irregular galls of different sizes on the plant roots) is a general problem in greenhouses in Hungary.The effect of Trifender microbiological preparation has been investigated on the degree of damage caused by root-knot nematodes in green-house pepper. We set up our experiment in Pusztamonostor (Jászság region, Hungary) in a family farm in 2008 and 2009. We carried out preliminary evaluation (Zeck-scale; 0–10) in the precrop with symptomatic assessment. According to the preliminary evaluation, the infection showed rates of 2–3 on the average.The results of 2008 show that Trifender had no effect on the number of females, but the plant height has been increased by 12 and 15%, and yield has grown by 25–35%. But on the contrary, in 2009 the number of females was decreased by 33%, and plant height was increased by 11%.

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Abstract

Nowadays, the problem of energy poverty occurs more and more frequently and its solution is a serious and urgent task. Energy poverty is closely related to the poor energy performance of residential stocks. Energy poverty is simultaneously an energetic and social question, due to involving households having bad energetic parameters. Because of bad efficiency, the energy costs are highly related to earnings. It is not able to enhance the energy efficiency of buildings. Financial supports for endangered layers should contain measures to increase energy efficiency and decrease energy consumption. However, the concept of energy poverty is applied to social groups, like families or communities. In this paper, we extended the concept of energy poverty to SME (small- and medium-sized enterprises). The paper introduces the concept and the risk of energy poverty and the technology of measuring those risks.

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The authors investigated the effect of feeding 2% sodium-hydroxide-treated (as-fed basis) or 2% formaldehyde-treated (crude protein basis) wheat to rumen-, duodenal- and ileocaecal-cannulated Holstein steers on rumen fermentation and ruminal and postruminal starch degradation. Feeding 2 kg/day wheat treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or formaldehyde did not affect negatively the main parameters of rumen fermentation, i.e. pH, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and microbial activity. Fibre degradation in the rumen was significantly improved when NaOH-treated wheat was fed. The in vivo experiments demonstrated that feeding NaOH- and formaldehyde-treated wheat to steers significantly increased the amount of starch that reached the small intestine. The amount of starch that entered the duodenum increased by 57% and 75% when steers were fed NaOH- and formaldehyde-treated wheat compared to the control phase, respectively. This higher quantity of starch was digested and absorbed, which can provide an increased glucose supply to the animals.

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Impacts of macrosynoptic weather patterns on the development of the thermal excess in suburban areas of Debrecen are examined in this paper. Temperature datasets have been recorded at two heights by three automatic weather stations mounted in Debrecen (east Hungary) and a small settlement in its vicinity. An additional automatic weather station is used as a reference station outside Debrecen. Urban heat island (UHI) intensities have been calculated from the raw datasets. Impacts of synoptic conditions have been analyzed on the base of Péczely’s macrosynoptic types. It has been found that anticyclone types are more favorable from the aspect of UHI development, while cyclone types, especially the passage of warm fronts can effectively hinder the formation of strong heat islands in Debrecen.

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Basal forebrain (BF) plays an important role in the regulation of cortical activation. Somatostatin (SOM) is present both in local neurons as well as in fibers in the BF. In previous studies, SOM axons were found to innervate corticopetal cholinergic cells and SOM was found to presynaptically modulate GABA and glutamate release onto cholinergic neurons in the BF. However, no systematic analysis is available about the EEG effects of SOM or its analog, octreotide (OCTR) injected directly into the BF. In the present experiments, EEG changes were examined following an OCTR injection (0.5 microliter, 500 nmol) into the BF areas containing several choline acetyl transferase-immunoreactive neurons of urethane-anaesthetized rats. Fronto-occipital EEG was recorded on both sides and relative EEG power was calculated in the delta (0–3 Hz), theta (3–9 Hz), alpha (9–16 Hz) and beta (16–48 Hz) frequency bands. OCTR injected to the BF failed to induce significant EEG changes and did not affect tail pinch-evoked cortical activation. Lack of effect may be attributed to the urethane anaesthesia as well as to the possible complex interactions between SOM and BF cholinergic and GABAergic neurons.

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The immobilization of enzymes has not been reported earlier on the two-dimensional crystalline bacterial cell surface (S-layer). In this study we tested S-layer isolated from Bacillus stearothermophilus PV72 for enzyme (ß-glucosidase, hexokinase and aldolase) immobilization. The carbodiimide method gave yields less than 5%. The yields of co-cross-linking method with glutaraldehyde were enhanced compared to the carbodiimide method, but the yield was higher than 10% only in the case of ß-glucosidase. Because of the fine structure of S-layer, immobilized enzymes could be removed from reaction mixtures only by centrifugation, therefore these preparations were entrapped in calcium alginate gel. The yields of entrapping procedures were between 15% and 37%. It was presumed that the new immobilized ß-glucosidase preparation could be used in a preliminary testing for flavour enrichment of wines. Efficiency of this preparation was compared to that of the immobilized ß-glucosidase on Acrylex C-100 support described earlier. We found that the immobilization of ß-glucosidase on both Acrylex C-100 support and S-layer followed by gel entrapping resulted in active enzyme preparations that could be used for flavour enrichment of wines without enhancing their protein content.

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Dominant halophytes, such as Plantago maritima, Aster tripolium, Artemisia santonicum, Puccinellia limosa, Festuca pseudovina and Lepidium crassifolium were monitored for their colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for two vegetation periods, sampled by monthly frequency. Two saline sites (A: Apaj-puszta and Z: Zabszék) were selected for the survey due to their similar physical and chemical soil characteristics (including the salt level and salt specific anions) and the distinct site use (pasturing or not) or water regime (as drought or temporally flooded at the vicinity of the Zabszék lake).  Colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi greatly depended on the plant species and their physiological status, such as the mycotroph or non-mycotroph character. In this respect the highest mycorrhizal intensity (M%) and arbusculum richness (A%) was found on the Plantago maritima , while Puccinellia limosa was the less dependent species on mycorrhiza fungi.  A characteristic seasonal dynamism was found at both saline sites, for all sampled halophytes. A maximum mycorrhizal colonization was recorded in late spring and early summer, when there was an increased plant-physiological initiative for the helpful symbiosis (i.e. intensive vegetative and/or generative phases of the hosts).  The rate of fungal intensity in the root system (M%), and especially the arbusculum richness (A%) on the other hand was found to be dependent on the site use and the water fluctuation in the soils. A more versatile dynamism of the mycorrhizal colonization was found therefore at the vicinity of the Zabszek lake with the permanent water fluctuations. Under more drought stressed conditions an increased mycorrhizal colonization and functioning (arbusculum richness) was found, generally preceeding the high environmental stress, which was deleterious for both symbiont partners. Such mycorrhizal dynamism in the rhizosphere, however, seems to be a common strategy between the hosts and the microsymbionts in the “struggle for life” process in the Hungarian steppe.

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The aim of the present study is a better understanding of the distribution and formation of salt efflorescences by mineralogical examination. Dominant sodium sulphate and sodium chloride surface efflorescences were selected for investigation. 24 samples were collected between 1999 and 2005 from 16 sites. The soil types were solonchak and meadow solonetz.Basic soil and groundwater analyses were performed according to the standard methods. Minerals were determined by X-ray diffractometry and SEM combined with microanalysis. The evaporation experiments were carried out in a Sanyo Versatile 350 HT environmental test chamber.It was concluded that common sulphate salts form rare and unique mineral associations on salt affected soils in Hungary.Comparing the groundwater compositions and the mineral associations of surface efflorescences or that of precipitated evaporites of groundwaters, the conclusion can be drawn that groundwater composition is reflected much better by the mineral association of experimentally precipitated evaporates of the groundwater than by the mineral associations of surface efflorescences. These differences suggest that the soil matrix may have an effect on the crystallization of minerals (e.g. gypsum, thenardite) in the efflorescences. The differences also suggest that in the surface efflorescences the precipitation process does not come to the end in all cases (minerals with high solubility are missing).Concerning the data on groundwater level depths in case of different (sodium carbonate versus sodium sulphate and sodium chloride) efflorescences, there is a tendency of declining groundwater table in the sequence of these soils. This difference can be explained by the difference (increase) in the solubility of various salt minerals.It was recognized that the change in the major component of surface efflorescenes in time (i.e. the sodium carbonate and sodium carbonate chloride versus sodium sulphate efflorescences before and after 1998) can be explained by the decline of the groundwater level and by the decreasing hydromorphic influence in the lowland area during the 19th and 20th century.Finally it can be stated that the presented research — which mainly focused on mineralogical aspects — has contributed to the earlier knowledge on surface salt efflorescences, which was based only on their chemical composition.

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The relationship between some soil physical-chemical characteristics, with more focus on the types of salt-specific anions and the colonisation parameters of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were examined on the most dominant halophytes, grown at four saline soils in Hungary. At site Z (Zám) mainly the chloride, at site Ny (Nyírõlapos) mainly the sulphate ions dominated in the soil samples, while at site A (Apajpuszta) and site Zsz (Zabszék) the carbonate anions were the most frequent. A large colonisation variability of the AM fungi were found in the four saline sites and the studied halophytes. Among the affecting soil-plant factors a strong host dependency was recorded with almost no mycorrhiza colonisation on Puccinellia limosa and the highest values at the Plantago maritima and Aster tripolium . As a function of the salt-levels a relative location of the halophytes could be found at each sites. The AMF colonisation intensity (M%) and functioning, measured as arbusculum richness (A%) was reduced with the overall increasing salinity, more particularly with the total cation-content of the soils. The deleterious effect of some other abiotic factors, i.e., the very poor or rich nutrient availability and the humus accumulation tended to be also negatively correlated by the mycorrhizal parameters.

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